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2012考研英语复习 写作全真模拟题(部分)
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第五部分 写作常用句型与过渡词语
 
    英语的句型千姿百态,就像一个词可以有许多同义词一样,一种句型也可以有许多具有相同意思但不同模式的类型。我们只有对这些变化多端的句型千锤百炼,烂熟于心,才能在具体运用时应付自如,随意调遣。因此,在日常训练中,应多做一些句型之间的转换、不同句式的造句练习及相同句式不同意思的翻译等等。以下的就是各种并排的句型和造句。
 
   1.表示开头的句型
·with the
development
improvement
rise
growth
recognition
realization
acknowledgement
of ..., we
learn
know
see
find
feel
that ...
 
 
    例文
    With the development of traffic tools, the communication between us becomes more and more frequent. No matter where your friends and relatives live, it is always very easy to pay a visit to them if you would like. Therefore, when you meet an old friend on a strange street, you may exclaim: " Oh, what a small world."
 
·With the
rapid
amazing
marked
 
development
increase
growth
expansion
of economy, China has become
increasingly prosperous
 
 
    例文
    With the help of the computer, this project was completed much earlier than planned.
    With a will of iron and a heart of love, Mother Teresa served the dying and desperate in India and around the world.
 
·Some people
believe
say
maintain
advocate
advise
hold
think
claim
that..., while
others
say
believe
maintain
think
claim
advocate
argue
propose
that...
 
    例文
    Some people say the most important element to success is the luck, while others claim it is hard work. There is no doubt that successful people take advantage of opportunities. But if a man does nothing but wait for the chance to come will achieve anything but success.
 
·Now people in
growing
increasing
significan
numbers are
beginning
coming
to
realize
recognize
understand
accept
be aware
 
    that...
 
    例文
    Now people in growing numbers are coming to recognize that the business spirit, which carries in its torrential course so many of the talents and energies of men into money - making, has shaped our culture and influenced our ideals and aspirations as a people.
 
    For some time..., it has been...
 
    例文
    For some time in the past it has been widely accepted that babiesand other creatureslearn to do things because certain acts lead to "rewards": and there is no reason to doubt that this is true. But it used also to be widely believed that effective reward, at least in the early stages, had to be directly related to such basic physiological(生理)"drives" as thirst or hunger. In other words, a baby would learn if he got food or drink of some sort of physical comfort, not otherwise.
 
·According to recent
survey
poll
study
report
research
, there have occurred...
 
    例文
    According to a Worldwide Wildlife Fund report, by 1970, only about 4,500 tigers survived throughout the world-half of them in India.
 
·
as far as...is concerned
When it comes to...
In the case of
就……来说
 
 
    例文
    In the case of man, the difficulties with the environmental concept are even more complicated because we have to deal with man as an animal and with man as a bearer of culture.
 
·Researchers have
established
proved
indicated
shown
declared
claimed
found
announced
made it known
that...
 
    例文
    Researchers have established that when people are mentally engaged, biochemical changes occur in the brain that allow it to act more effectively in cognitive areas such as attention and memory. This is true regardless of age.
 
·It has been
well known
believed
found
proved
reported
estimated
demanded
agreed
that...人们发现,据报道,据估计
 
    例文
    It is agreed that they enjoy making noises, and that during the first few months one or two noises sort themselves out as particularly indicative of delight, distress, sociability, and so on. But since these cannot be said to show the baby's intention to communicate, they can hardly be regarded as early froms of language. It is agreed, too, that from about three months they play with sounds for enjoyment, and that by six months they are able to add new sounds to their repertoire.
 
·
A proverb says...
As the old Chinese saying goes...
Many people often ask this question...
As we all know...
As far as I know...
常言道……
中国有句古话……
许多人常提出这个问题……
据我所知……
 
·
Various views exist as to...
It goes without saying...
No one can deny that...
There is no doubt that...
We must recognize that...
What is more serious is that...
Others may find this to be true, but I
do not. I believe that...
 
关于……有许多说法
人们都承认……
 
毫无疑问……
我们必须认识到……
更为严重的是……
别人也许觉得这个主张是正确的,但我不,我认
为……
 
·
We might marvel at
In spite of/despite
the
great
giant
extraordinary
tremendous
 
progress
stride
advance
made in
 
science and technology
nearly every field
, but...remain
basically unchanged
the same as it was
as...as ever they were
 
    例文
    We might marvel at the progress made in every field of study, but the methods of testing a person's knowledge and ability remain as primitive as ever they were. It is extraordinary that after all these years, educationists have still failed to devise anything more efficient and reliable than examinations.
 
· “...”
how often we hear
we are used to hearing
many people have heard
such
statement
words
complaint
as this
 
·“...”That's how one
college student
official
housewife
father
 
described
commented
complained
criticized
...
 
    例文
    "All I have learnt in college is junk." -- That's how one college graduate described his frustration in looking for a job. He is hardly alone in the experience. Actually there are thousands of college graduates who complain that the degree they took away can't help them to secure a rewarding job, and the knowledge they acquired in class can't be transformed into useful job skills.
 
·
“Why
do
have
 
...?”Many people often
ask
pose
raise
 
the question like this
 
    例文
    "Why does the idea of progress loom so large in the modern world?"
 
    Many people often ask the question like this. Surely it is because progress of a particular kind is actually taking place around us and is becoming more and more manifest. Although mankind has undergone no general improvement in morality, it has made extraordinary progress in knowledge and technology.
 
·
Perhaps
Maybe
we should
it is time to
 
rethink
reexamine
have a fresh look at
the
idea
value
attitude
wisdom
desirability
of...
 
·One of the
biggest issues
hottest topics
most popular things
most serious problems
many people
talk
complain
argue
about now is ...
 
    例文
    One of the most popular topics many city residents talk about now is the tide of the rural poor flooding the cities. They complain that the migrants have brought crime and prostitution, that they are putting pressure on population control and social order: that they are threatening to take already scarce city jobs and exacerbating housing shortages; and that they have worsened traffic and sanitation problems. True, these are the problems posed by the migration, but what about the contribution the rural workers have made to the city's development and prosperity?
 
·One of the
 
searching
burning
pressing
interesting
exciting
urgent
 
problems
questions
 
facing
confronting
our
nation
society
world
today is ...
 
    例文
    One of the basic questions facing our society today is: What promise or threat does new technology hold for our global future? Since the decision our society makes about technological development will undoubtedly have tremendous consequences in the years to come it is urgently necessary to explore this question, especially by examining science and technology in their relationship to the development of humanity.
 
·There is a
public
general
much
considerable
 
debate
discussion
controversy
argument
 
nowadays
today
at present
 
concerning
on
about
over
as to
 
the problem of .... Those who
 
criticize
oppose
object to
...
contend
argue
say
maintain
that...
 
·
Now
Perhaps
Nowadays
, the most
dangerous
undesirable
harmful.
for our
nation
society
world
college
is the
 
trend
tendency
phenomenon
 
of ... which is
 
apparent
obvious
evident
pervasive
rampant
under way
in...
 
    例文
    perhaps most dangerous for our nation now is the official corruption which is rampant in nearly every field of our society. Once our officials were content with television sets or imported cigarettes as payment for official services, they now demand land rights, stock certificates, and even directly dollars.
 
·All
 
reliable data
statistic evidence
scientific observations
available information
undoubted facts
 
pile up to show
justify
points to
lend support to
the
fact
view
that...
 
    例文
    All available evidence points to the fact that more and more young people are declaring their allegiance to traditional values. Traditional weddings seem to be making a comeback, for example. But this is only a partial, not a complete, reversal.
 
·One may
 
attribute
ascribe
owe
the
increase
decrease
change
to...
 
·These factors, coupled with the
 
growth
change
recognition
realization
of…
lead to
contribute to
result in
help
...
 
·
Many
Various
Several
factors
 
weigh
affect
 
heavily
greatly
 
for
against
in favor of
...
 
    例文
    Two factors weigh heavily against the effectiveness of scientific research in industry. One is the general atmosphere of secrecy        in which it is carried out, the other the lack of freedom of the individual research worker. In so far as any study is a secret one, it naturally limits all those engaged in carrying it out with effective contact with their fellow scientists.
 
·Recently the
rise in
phenomenon of
problem of
questions of
... has
drawn/aroused
caused// aroused
loomed up
 
public/popular/grave/
wide/general/considerable
world-wide attention/concern
 
    例文
    Recently, the alarm about the problem of the use of genetic technologies on human beings have caused wide public concern, and understandably so. With nuclear energy threatening global catastrophe and with so many other technological advances visibly damaging the quality of life, who would wish to have scientists tampering with man's inner nature? Indeed, fear of such manipulation may arouse even more anxiety than fear of death.
 
·In
recent few years
the past few decades
, there
is
has been
a
 
 
 
 
 
sharp/ marked /
sudden / dramatic
increase / growth/ rise /
decline
in ...
 
 
 
 
astonishing / increasing /
sizable
number/ percentage/
proportion / population
of ...
 
 
 
 
    例文
    In recent years, there is an increasing number of people, especially young people, who show little interest in correcting social inequalities and injustices. According to a national poll last year, eighteen to twenty-nine year-olds agreed by large percentages that young people today are "less idealistic" and "more selfish", and that they are less concerned with the problems of society than with their own personal future.
 
·
Recently
Nowadays
Currently
In the past few years
So far
, there has been a
general
widespread
growing
widely-held
concern
worry
realization
belief
trend
feeling
attitude
that ...
 
·Recently the
problem
issue
question
of ... has been
in the limelight/brought into focus
brought public attention
posed among the general public
 
    例文
    The problem of development vs. environment has now been in the limelight. Nowhere is the clash more visible than in China, where the world's largest population faces pollution, deforestation and acid rain on a large scale.
 
·
How do you
What do you
Do you ever
think of ... ?
How do you
What do you
Do you ever
see ... ?
 
·In
answer
reply
to these questions, we must...
 
    例文
    How do we think of the heavy burden a student has to carry from kindergarten through graduate school? How do we measure success in education? How does education affect not only labour skills but the quality of life? In seeking answers to such questions, there is much room —— indeed necessity —— for consideration and robust debate.
 
·They believe that ... But people who
advocate
favour
..., on the other hand,
 
maintain
assert
that...
 
    例文
    There is much discussion today about whether fast economic growth is desirable. Those who criticize economic growth argue that we must slow down. They believe that society is approaching certain limits on growth. These include the fixed supply of natural resources, and the possible negative effects of industry on the natural environment. People who want more economic growth, on the other hand, argue that even at the present growth rate there are still many poor people.
 
·To
illustrate
prove
show
this point, let us
 
consider
ask why
look first at
develop argument
 
·There is/ are
a common belief that
reason why
a popular belief that
many factors that
no denying that
 
 
    例文
    There is a popular belief among parents that schools are no longer interested in spelling. No school I have taught in has ever ignored spelling or considered it unimportant as a basic skill. There are, however, vastly different ideas about how to teach it, or how much priority it must be given over general language development and writing ability. The problem is, how to encourage a child to express himself freely and confidently in writing without holding him back with the complexities of spelling?
 
·It is a
curious
interesting
unusual
considerable
tremendous
 
paradox
discovery
finding
 
 
that ... .
 
It is
natural
interesting
for ... to ...
 
    例文
    It's very interesting to note where the debate about diversity is taking place. It is taking place primarily in political circles. Here at the College Fund, we have a lot of contact with top corporate leaders; none of them is talking about getting rid of those instruments that produce diversity. In fact, they say that if their companies are to compete in the global village and in the global market place, diversity is an imperative.
 
·
Many authors have argued for ...
   We find/ feel/ know that
 
 
    例文
    Many authors have argued for the inevitability of war from the premise. that in the struggle for existence among animal species, only the fittest survive. In general, however, this struggle in nature is competition, not conflict. Social animals, such as monkeys and cattle, fight to win or maintain leadership of the group.
 
·
The question of whether war is inevitable
The concept/ question of "environment"
The significance/ importance of ...
is ...
 
    例文
    The question of whether war is inevitable is one which has concerned many of the world's great writers. Before considering this question, it will be useful to introduce some related concepts. Conflict, defined as opposition among social entities directed against one another, is distinguished from competition, defined as opposition among social entities independently striving for something which is in inadequate supply.
 
    2. 表示承上启下、段落发展的句型
 
·My
idea
opinion
view
reason
viewpoint
plan
may be expressed as follows:
 
·We may
cite
quote
mention
take
point out
have
possess
 
an single
common
another
additional
extra
further
example of
 
 
·The
opinion
idea
view
theory
may be
supported
proved
born out
by
facts
details
statistics
the fact that
 
·There are
various
many
different
several
a number of
a variety of
a great many
 
effects
causes
reasons
implications
views
arguments
for this
sharp
dramatic
marked
significant
extraordinary
 
decrease
fall
growth
change
decline
increase
in … Firstly …, Secondly …, Finally …,
 
    例文
    Every sword has two blades. Problems do exist in some college students' two-day weekend. Some Lazy students may spend most of the time sleeping, doing nothing else. Some may he addicted to playing cards, drinking, leaving their homework far away. Therefore, the two-day weekend can bring nothing useful to them.
 
·The
answer to
explanation of
this
problem
phenomenon
involves
many
several
 
complex
complicated
interrelated
 
factors
reasons
 
 
For one thing
Some
, ...
For another
Others
...
Still another
Still others
 
    例文(a)
    The factors for a big rise in the teenage smoking are complex. Some attribute it to the increased standard of living which enables kids to have more pocket money than ever before. others place the blame on the neglectful parents who tolerate and sometimes even encourage their kids smoking. Still others complain of the sharp increase in cigarette advertising and tobacco imports which give young people easy access to Marlboro, Kent and Parliament. Whatever the causes, only particular external.
 
    例文(b)
    The advantage of the education system in Japan is that students there learn the social skill of cooperation. Another advantage is that they learn much more math and science than most American students. They also study more hours each day and more days each year than their North American counterparts do. The system is demanding, but it prepares children for a society that values discipline and self-control. There are, however, disadvantages. For one thing, many students say that after an exam, they forget much of the information they memorized. For another, the extremely demanding system puts enormous psychological pressure on students, and is considered a primary factor in the high suicide rate among Japanese school-age children.
 
    .Why is...?
 
    例文
    Why is America lagging behind in the global PR race? First, Americans as a whole tend to be fairly provincial and take more of an interest in local affairs. Knowledge of world geography, for example, has never been strong in this country. Secondly, Americans lag behind their European and Asian counterparts in knowing a second language. Less than 5 percent of Burson-Marshall's U.S. employees know two languages.
 
·Why
have
are
did
 
…?
For one thing,
… .
One reason is
 
For another,
Another reason is
 
·Perhaps the
most important
reason is ...
 
main
 
 
primary
 
 
crucial
 
 
essential
 
 
 
·It may
result in
a
Lot
of problems
 
give rise to
 
host
 
 
lead to
 
set
 
 
bring
 
 
 
 
create
 
 
 
 
·The
Main
 
reason
for ... is ....
 
Leading
 
cause
 
 
Underlying
 
 
 
 
Root
 
 
 
 
This will
Lead to
some
serious
consequences
 
Bring
 
dreadful
 
 
Entail
 
pernicious
 
 
Involve
 
terrible
 
 
Cause
 
horrible
 
 
Lead
 
awful
 
 
Give rise to
 
alarming
 
 
Bring about
 
 
 
 
·
Additionally
此外,而且,另外
 
Moreover
 
 
What is more
 
 
Furthermore
 
 
In addition
 
 
Besides
 
 
Apart from
 
 
    例文
    We must choose from among the clothing presented by our society. Furthermore, our choice is limited to a size that will fit, as well as by our pocket book ... Having made a choice within these limits we can have certain alterations made, but apart from minor adjustments, we tend to be limited to what the stores have on their racks. Statuses too come ready made, and the range of choice among them is limited.
 
·
However
可是,然而
 
Y, , , , et
 
 
Notwithstanding
 
 
Nevertheless
 
 
In contrast
 
 
    例文
    After a year or so, however, I still hadn't gotten a break and began to doubt myself. It was so hard to sell a story that barely made enough to eat.
 
·To my
surprise
让我感到……的是
 
delight
 
 
horror
 
 
·
Due to
the fact that因为……
 
Thanks to
 
 
Owing to
 
 
Because of
 
 
In view to
 
 
·
On the grounds that
因为……
 
Because
 
 
Given
 
 
Considering
 
 
·
As far as
I see就我所知……
 
As much as
 
 
    例文
    "As much as I honor this award," Steve said, "there's someone who deserves it more than I do." The crowd fell silent. "Everything I accomplished this season, and everything the team accomplished, is thanks to one person." he turned to Michael. "Michael, you always said I was your hero, If I were half the man you are, I would be proud, because there is no doubt that you are my hero."
 
    ·not that ... , but that ... 不是因为……而是因为……
 
·
succeed in doing sth.
做成某事
 
try successfully to do sth.
 
 
managed to do sth.
 
 
make it to do sth.
 
 
    例文
    I want to conduct my own defence in court, but as soon as my father found out what had happened, he hired a very good solicitor. We went along that Monday armed with all kinds of witnesses, including my English teacher from school as a character witness. But he was never called to give evidence. My 'trial' didn't get that far. The magistrate dismissed the case after fifteen minutes. I was free. The poor police had never stood a chance. The solicitor even succeeded in getting costs awarded against the police.
 
·
Given
如果……
 
Provided that
 
 
Providing that
 
 
As/So long as
 
 
On condition of
 
 
·
There is every chance that
……很有可能
 
Chances are that
 
 
It is most likely that
 
 
It is probable that
 
 
There's no doubt that
 
 
    例文
    Given the obscure nature of the charge, I feel sure that if I had come from a different background, and had really been unemployed, there is every chance that I would have been found guilty.
 
·The
increase
 
mainly stems/result/arises/comes from
the fact that ...
 
decline
 
is chiefly cause by/because of/born of
 
 
change
 
is largely due/owing/attributable to
 
 
success
 
 
 
 
failure
 
 
 
 
    例文
    The increase in social costs (e.g. environmental pollution, unemployment and unplanned urbanization) mainly results from the failure of people to include these variables in their calculations of cost efficiency. Such a failure is due, partially at least, to the fact that many industries or areas have not, until recently, been held accountable for these social costs.
 
·Perhaps the
main
reason is ...
 
primary
 
 
fundamental
 
 
most important
 
 
·
A good case in point is ...
关于……一个比较好的例子是……
 
As ... , other ...
 
 
As ... but in addition
 
 
    例文
    A good case in point is the white-tailed deer. Like most wildlife, deer reproduce, grow, and store fat in the summer and fall when there is plenty of nutritious food available.
 
    3.用于结尾的句型
 
·
All in all
, we can
learn
that ...
 
Therefore
 
say
 
 
In one word
 
know
 
 
On the whole
 
be sure
 
 
To sum up
 
maintain
 
 
In general
 
advocate
 
 
Generally speaking
 
 
 
 
In conclusion
 
 
 
 
    例文
    To sum up, unchecked population growth is not merely an annoying problem exaggerated by pessimists who always worry about the future. It is, on the contrary, the most serious problem humanity faces today. Hunger and starvation, environmental destruction, and increasing human tensions and irritability — these are the certain results if we are not able to solve it.
·All
available
evidence
goes to show that
 
indisputable
 
points to the fact that
 
 
reliable
 
piles up to show that
 
 
striking
 
lends support to the view that
 
 
statistical
 
 
 
 
·It is
important
that
effective
 
action
should be taken to
 
necessary
 
quick
 
steps
 
 
essential
 
proper
 
measure
 
 
fundamental
 
powerful
 
remedies
 
 
 
 
more
 
 
 
 
deal with
the
problem
cope with
 
tendency
prevent
 
phenomenon
correct
 
situation
check
 
attitude
end
 
state
fight
 
conditions
 
 
circumstance
 
·No
easy
 
method
can be
taken
to
deal with
 
quick
 
solution
 
found
 
cope with
 
new
 
recipe
 
at hand
 
tackle
 
instant
 
remedy
 
guaranteed
 
attack
 
effective
 
way
 
 
 
solve
 
immediate
 
approach
 
 
 
 
 
significant
 
means
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
step
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
measures
 
 
 
 
 
the problem of ... , but the
public
 
recognition
of the
necessity
 
general
 
realization
 
importance
 
common
 
awareness
 
significance
 
 
 
 
 
essence
 
of ... might be the first step towards ...
 
·All in all, it is
hoped
that
persistent
efforts should be made to
 
advised
 
continuous
 
 
suggested
 
unending
 
 
recommended
 
consistent
 
 
maintained
 
sustained
 
 
advocated
 
corporate
 
 
 
 
persevering
 
 
curb
the
worsening situation
of ...
check
 
decline
 
halt
 
increase
 
control
 
rise
 
promote
 
 
 
 
·It is, therefore,
apparent
the
job
of ...
involves
 
clear
 
task
 
demands
 
obvious
 
issue
 
requires
 
no surprising
 
 
 
deserves
 
evident
 
 
 
claims
 
no wonder
 
 
 
 
 
natural
 
 
 
 
 
self-evident
 
 
 
 
 
consider-
attention
able
efforts
immediate
emphasis
great
consideration
serious
 
wide
 
full-scale
 
 
·There is no
doubt
that attention must be
paid
to the
problem
of ...
 
denying
 
called
 
shortage
 
 
denial
 
devoted
 
development
 
 
 
 
given
 
 
 
 
    例文
    There is no doubt that adequate attention must be paid to the improvement of recreative possibilities in the neighborhood of the him and the urban environment must offer as many recreation activities as possible. For an important part of time which we do not pass in sleeping or working is used for activities at and around home.
 
·
From what's been discussed above
 
safely
 
arrive at
 
Taking into account all the factors
we may
reasonably
 
come to
 
Judging from all evidence offered
 
 
 
reach
 
 
 
 
 
craw
 
 
 
 
 
gain
 
the
conclusion
that ...
 
moral
 
 
·
When comparing ...
 
 
Although doing something ...
the conclusions are ...
 
White admitting that
 
 
when ...
 
 
    例文
    When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion, the conclusions to be drawn are obvious. Do the constantly changing fashions of women's clothes, one wonders, reflect basic qualities of inconstancy and instability? Men are too clever to let themselves be cheated by fashion designers. Do their unchanging styles of dress reflect basic qualities of stability and reliability? That is for you to decide.
 
·
Consequently
 
 
All in all,
 
 
As a final comment,
总之,
 
Finally,
结果,
 
A conclusion from is that
总而言之,
 
Hence
一言以蔽之,
 
As mentioned above, the only possibility
 
 
to ... would be ...
总的来说,
 
In summary,
 
 
To sum up,
 
 
On this background, it was concluded that
 
 
What is essential, however, is ... to be
 
 
In a word,
 
 
The result is dependent on
 
 
Thus, this is the reason why we must
 
 
In brief,
 
 
At last,
 
 
At length
 
 
In conclusion,
 
 
From this paint of view,
 
 
On account of this we can find that
 
 
To summarize,
 
 
As a result,
 
 
In short,
 
 
    例文
    In a word, I think the interview will do good to both the interviewer and the interviewee. By an interview the interviewer can find a suitable person if both of them make the best of the job interview.
 
 
put
 
deplorable
 
situation
·It is high time we
urged
an immediate
undesirable
 
phenomenon
 
 
end to the
deep-seated
 
tendency
 
 
 
unhealthy
 
circumstance
 
 
 
terrible
 
 
 
    例文
    It is high time that we urged an immediate end to this deplorable phenomenon. Our colleges and universities should be more willing to shoulder their responsibilities to students and their families. But too often, these responsibilities have been evaded. This we cannot afford.
 
    4.和词组有关的句型
 
cluster   可数
 
 
crowd
 
·a
couple
of 大批的,许多的,大量的
 
great many
 
 
good many
 
 
great variety of
 
 
flood of
 
 
great (large) choice
 
 
crew
 
 
flock
 
 
shower
 
 
heap
 
 
host
 
 
multitude of/multitudes of
 
 
handful  不可数
 
 
large sum
 
 
large mount
 
 
sea
 
 
world
 
 
a good supply of
 
 
a battery of
 
 
a series of
 
 
a succession of
 
 
·
air
<, B>one's viewpoint about sth. 对……发表观点
 
voice
 
 
·
all of sudden
突然,
 
all the while
一直,始终,
 
all the year round
一年到头,
 
year in year out
洗耳恭听
 
all ears
 
 
·anything but决不,决不是,除……以外什么都是
例如:He is anything but a writer.他绝对不是一个作家。
 
 
apply one's mind to
 
·
apply (address) oneself to
 
 
set one's mind to
全力以赴,专心致志
 
focus one's effort on
 
 
put one's effort
 
 
bend one's effort
 
 
concentrate one's effort on
 
 
·
as far as ... be concerned
 
 
when it comes to
就……而言
 
in the case of
 
 
·As 词组:
 
.
as many as
(无具体意义)
例如:As many as 100 persons were killed in the air crash
as early as
(表强调)
I came here as early as 8 o'clock.
as often as
as much as
 
He promised to write home as often as possible once he got there.(尽量多写信)
 
 
As for (只用于句首),
 
至于,至于,关于
as to
 
就……而论
as regards
 
 
 
as a result
as a consequence
consequently
 
结果
 
as yet
到目前为止
as the saying goes
常言道
might as well
不妨
as it were
也就是说,即
as good as one's word
言行一致
as follows
如下
As occasion serves
一有机会,一有适当时机,方便的时候
As the matter stands
按照现状
As the case may be
看情况,根据具体情况
 
·
as luck would have it
luckily
fortunately
 
 幸运的是
 
    As such 照此,就以这种身份(资格)
    例如:He was a guest and was treated as such
 
    Such as 诸如
    例如:Such girls as he knew were teachers.
 
    例如:Such being the case 事实既然如此
 
    例如:Such ...as (定语从句)
    Let children read such books as will make them better and wiser.
 
    Such as to/such that
    例如:His behavior is such as to make his friends angry.
·
on the point of
on the verge of
on the brink of
 
 将要做……事情
 
·
attach importance to
lay importance on
put importance on
put value on
view ...as important
make point of
认为……很重要
 
·
Attain
Reach
Get
Arrive  at
Achieve
 
one's
goal
purpose
aim
view
达到……的目的
 
 
·
be crammed with
be crowded with
be packed with
be jammed with
塞满了……
    例如:His hard work is crowded with success. 他的艰苦工作终于取得了成功。
 
    · come down in the world .破败,衰落  
    例如:His was once a millionaire, but now has come down in the world.
 
come up in the world 发迹,发财
例如:With such a big sum of money to support, he finally come up in the world.
come up with 想出来
例如:She has come up with better ideas to improve her previous plans.
 
    came down with 生……病
    例如:Stephen came down with a bad cold because he walked in the rain.
 
·
give away
unfold
expose
indicate
index
exhibit
show
reveal
显示,表现
    例如:Mother's burst into tears on Wednesday index her vulnerability.
 
·
shed light on
throw light on,
help to explain sth.
 
  解释
 
·
Put ...into use
Make use of sth.
Employ
Take advantage of
Utilize
 
 
 利用……
    例如:I'd like to take advantage of this opportunity to express my profound thanks to you.
 
 
 
·
be innocent of
be short of ...
lack
be in shortage of
没有,缺乏
 
    ·do without: 没……也行
    例如:If you can do without the few pastoral pleasures of the country, you will find the city can provide you with the best that life can offer.
 
    make do with: 勉强凑合:She refuses to make do with the second best.
 
 
 
·
be apt to
be prone to
have the tendency of
be inclined to
be liable to
 
 
  易于,有……趋势
 
    例如:His mother is liable to sea-sickness. 他母亲总是好晕船。
 
 
·
be addicted to
indulge oneself in
沉湎于,沉浸于
 
    · On + doing sth. —……就……:
    例如:On entering the classroom, the teacher ...
 
·On
hearing
coming
arriving
leaving
knowing
learning
 ,he...
 
    ·be seized with a sudden impulse to do sth。 突然心血来潮想做某事
    例如:He is seized with a sudden impulse to go swimming immediately after lunch.
 
 
·
Make sure that
See that
Make certain that
Be sure to do sth.
 
务必……一定……
    例如Make sure that you will never be late next time.
 
 
 
·
on no account
in no time
in no case
under no circumstances
on no condition
 
决不
 
 
·
 
Pay
a visit to
a call on
heed to
homage to
one's compliments to
respect
regard
honor to
 
拜访
注意
 
向……表示敬意,问好
 
 
·
 
out of
danger
work
line
question
the question
condition
date
fashion
doors
favor
shape
 
失业,没有工作
不成一线,不符和
毫无疑问,不成问题
不可能
身体状况不好
 
 
失宠
变形
 
·
beyond:
beyond praise
beyond endurance
beyond description
beyond compare
beyond words
beyond one's income
beyond one's power
beyond me ( can't understand)
beyond my ken ( knowledge)
 
    ·but = which not:
    例如:In our university, there's no one but knows him.
    With much cruelties committed, there's nobody but hates him.
    (因为犯下了如此罪行,没有人不恨他的。)
 
·
under
under
under
under
under
under
 
under
under
under
under
pressure
threat
attack
a heavy load
weather =off color =come down with a bad cold.
 生……病
way = being built
repair = being repaired
discussion = being discussed
sentence of (= sentenced to ) death
 
    living under an assumed name
    live under the impression that = have the idea, belief that :相信,认为
 
 
 
 
·
smooth out
smooth over
overcome
conquer
bring ...under control
 
 
克服,战胜……
 
    例文
    Whole multitudes of difficulties never arose thanks to George's skill at smoothing over small conflicts before they became big, emotional and costly.
    5 由形式主语it + that 引导的句子
    在下面的句子中,it是形式主语,而真正的主语则是由“that" 引导的从句:
    ·It + 形容词+ that
    It is vital that enough money be collected to fund the project.
    重要的是,我们应该筹集到足够的资金来完成这项计划。
 
    ·It + 动词+ that 从句:注意这种结构翻译成汉语后的词序与英语有何不同:
    (a) It moved us all to tears that he came to attend the meeting in spite of his illness.
    他带病来参加会议,使我们感动得掉下泪来。
    (b) But, it doesn't alter the fact that he was the man responsible for the death of the little girl.
    但是,他应对这个小女孩的死负责任这事实是怎么也改变不了的。
    (c) It so happened that I failed to meet him over there as expected because the train was delayed by the heavy snow.
    事情是这样的,火车因为积雪晚点,所以我来晚了。
    (d) It suddenly occurred to Anne that money couldn't make up for all that Bob had suffered in the past five years.
    安娜突然想到,钱不可能弥补鲍博在过去五年所受的苦。
 
    ·It + 名词 + that 从句
    If Nancy keeps up her absence from class that way, it is our opinion that she will not be able to keep up with her studies.
    如果南希继续这样缺课的话,我们认为她肯定跟不上功课。
    It is a pity ( a shame、no wonder、strange ...) that he (should )fail to passed the test.
    真可惜,他考试不及格。
 
    · It + ed 分词形式+ that 从句
    It has been thought and said that African are born with music and talent.
    人们这样认为并且说,非洲人天生的就有音乐的天赋。
    请注意下列句子的句型:即S + V + O + OC 句型:
    His mother has made it clear that she is very proud for she has done a great deal for her country.
    他妈妈很清楚地表明她因为自己为祖国作出了很大贡献而感到骄傲。
 
    ·有时,某些强调句形也是采用这种形式。
    It is not how much you read but what you read that really matters.
    重要的不是你读多少,而是你读什么。
   It was not until 1925 that TV came into being.
    直到1925年,电视才得以诞生。
    下面的一些句子也是由“It”引导的无主句,也可以说是同位语从句:
    Why is it that he fails to turn up as expected?
    他为什么又没来?
    像以上的这种结构类型,还有许多,例如:
    ·状语式结构
    (a) it + 形容词+ that 从句
    It is apparent that              很清楚
    It is appropriate that            恰当的是,应该……
    It is clear that...                 很清楚
    It is convenient to               ……是很方便的
    It is desirable that               要……,必须……
    It is essential that               关键的是,必须……
    It is evident that                ……不言而喻
    It is fortunate that...             幸运的是
    It is impressive that             给人印象深刻的是
    It is likely that...                  很可能
    It is necessary that...              有必要
    It is nice that                     好极了
    It is possible that                 很可能
    It is preferable that               ……是可取的
    It is reasonable that               ……是有道理的
    It is strange that...                ……很奇怪
    It is unwise to                    ……是不明智的
 
    (b) it + 动词+that 从句(连接状语)
    It seems that ...                 好像……,似乎……
    It turns out that ...               结果是,结果证明
 
    ·正常谓语
    It occurred to me that ...          我突然想到……
    Take it for granted that ....         ……是当然的
 
    (c) it + 名词+ that 从句(状语)
    It is a pity that          真可惜
    It is an honor that ...      让人感到荣幸的是
    It is coincidence that ...    恰巧的是
    It is no accident that...    不无巧合
    It is quite a (n) ...that...    很……
    It is no wonder that ...     不奇怪
 
    ·与原文一致的表语
    It is the case that      ……是真的
    It is no good that      ……没有益处
   
    ·分词式结构
    (a) 译时加主语
    It is announced that        有人宣布说
    It is expected that...        有人期望
    It is argued that ...         人们争辩说
    It is asserted that          他们保证说
    It is stressed that          他们强调
    It is stated that            有人说
    It is noted that            有人注意到
    It is objected that          他们反对
    It is mentioned that        他们提到
    It is confirmed that        他们证实说
 
    (b) 不需要加主语
    It is estimated that...             据估计
    It is said that...                  据说
    It is supposed that               据猜想
    It is well-known that...           众所周知
    It is assumed that                 据推测
    综上所述,句型的练习对于写好一篇文章相当重要。如果一篇文章里的单词是“金玉良言”, 句型错落有致,各种典型句式比比皆是,篇幅的分配、逻辑也很理想,这样的文章肯定是佳作。因此抓住了词汇、句式、语篇这三方面的要领,就等于找到了写好文章的关键。
 
第六部分   重视语言的表达
 
    考英语写作的目的是什么?应看到,考中国学生的英语作文,其目的并不是看你把这个作文题论述得如何好,把内容提示的都表达出来(当然这也是一个方面),但更重要的是考你的英语语言的能力,考你的英语表达能力。因此,在英语写作考试中,不仅仅是把内容写出来就可以了,而应更多地考虑怎么把自己的语言水平表现出来。许多考生没有意识到这一点,他们是想到什么词,就写什么词,没有停下来稍微考虑一下:有没有比这个词更好、更贴切的词,有没有比这个句子更生动、更有力的句子结构。
    应该看到,我们的阅卷人员几乎都是中国教师,而不是外国人,因此他们更重视的是语言,也就是说,是你的用词用句的漂亮使你的文章赢得阅卷人的好感而得到高分,而不是你论述如何出色而帮助你得分。在内容基本雷同、语言普遍平淡的作文中,出现一篇用词、用句都不同寻常的文章,就立即使阅卷人眼睛一亮,作文高分就往往是这样产生的。下面例1是一篇高分的作文(尽管在结构上,一致性上和连贯性上都存在很多问题)。
 
    例1
The Two-Day Weekend
 
    The advance of science and technology makes people have more free time. Nowadays, we have 5-workday week. Therefore, our university and college students can have much more leisure time. Sports fans can play in the playground. Some students who are interested in social work can join many clubs. Of course, we also can get a part time job to gain some work experience.
    There is a growing concern over the students who don't put too much emphasis on study. Some students always idle away their time, playing cards, drinking, gambling. These problems are really serious. Taking into account all these factors, we can safely come to the conclusion that the students will waste more time if they don't make good use of it.
    As a student, busy as I am with my study, I also do many interesting things such as reading novels, writing articles at the two-day weekend. All work no play makes Jack a dull boy. It's really true!
    "There is a growing concern over", "put too much emphsis on", "idle away their time", "Taking into account all these factors", "make good use of it", "busy as I am with my study" "All work no play makes Jack a dull boy" 这些词句就像沙漠中的金子闪闪发光,不能不使阅卷人感到欣喜。
 
    实际上,所谓的金子无非是语言的variety, 即用词的变化,用句的变化,就语言而论不存在哪个词好,哪个词不好,哪个句子结构好,哪句子结构不好的说法。所谓语言漂亮是指语言的变化。
 
1.词的变化
    按理说,参加考研要有5300单词的词汇量,但是真正能够用于表达的可能还不到5%。一些考生一篇200词左右的文章,把相同的词去掉不算,剩下的相异词竟不到40个。好多考生的作文里除了动词、名词、代词和介词,几乎不见一个形容词,不见一个副词。为什么能用于表达或表达正确的词比例如此之小?为什么在大学英语精读教程里学了这么多丰富的词汇和精彩的表达,到写的时候全用不上?除了其他原因,其中一条就是没有有意识地注意语言表达的方式。一想到“使”就是make ;一要表达“不仅,而且”的意思就用not only... but aslo;一要说“人们认为”就是people think ;甚至出现 More and more people who become more and more rich can buy more and more TV这样的句子。
    要改变语言贫乏这一毛病,这就需要平时注意积累对同一意思的不同表达法,在写作时善于变化。在以下各例中,请读者注意用b)标明的句子。
 
    例2
    如要表示“使”,不要仅依靠make:
    a) This society still makes women unable to enjoy equal rights.
    b) Women are still denied equal rights.
 
    a) The incident made me recall one of my past experiences.
    b) The incident reminded me of one of my past experiences.
 
    例3
    如要表达“越来越”,不要只使用more and more:
    a) More and more students find learning English has become more and more difficult.
    b) Students in growing numbers find learning has become increasingly difficult.
 
    a) More and more teenagers smoke cigarettes in recent years.
    b) Teenage smoking is on the rise in recent years.
 
    a) More and more teachers are demanded with the devlopment of economy.
    b) There is an increasing demand for teachers with the development of economy.
 
    例4
    如要表达“大多数”,不要一味用most:
    a) Most students take a parttime job after class.
    b) The vast majority of students take a parttime job after class
 
    a) Most people take part in sports of different kinds.
    b) The considerable proportion of people take part in sport sof different kinds.
 
    a) Most college students take a negative attitude towards smoking.
    b) The large percentage of college population take a negative attitude towards smoking.
 
    例5
    如要表达“不仅……,而且……”不要只用not only... but also:
    a) The factors for a rise in teenage smoking is not only social but also psychological.
    b) The factors for a rise in teenage smoking is psychological as well as social.
 
    a) Taking a parttime job can not only earn a little money, but also have an opportunity to contact with society.
    b) Taking a parttime job means more than a little money you can earn. It also means an opportunity to contact with society.
 
    a)Old people go to park not only to do exercise but also to make friends.
    b) Old people go to park as much for companionship as for exercise.
    这决不是说在语言上,make 比deny; more and more 比increasingly; most 比the vast majority of; not only ... but also 比as much ...差,而是说在写作中要求有变化。如上面例1这篇高分的作文The Two-Day Weekend , 第一段两次提到“空闲时间”,就是一次用free time, 第二次就用leisure time。 再如第二段二次提到“浪费时间”,第一次是用idle away their time, 第二次就用waste more time.
 
    例6
    TV: A Blessing or a Curse 一篇作文的主体段如下:
    As is often pointed out, television keeps one better informed about the current events, allows one to follow the latest developments in politics and science, and offers endless series of programmes which are both instructive and stimulating. The most distant countries, the strangest customs and attractive scenes of nature are brought right into one's room. Yet here again, there is danger. The main problem with TV has been its negative effect on people in general. For example, rubbishy commercials and harmful programs contributing to the rise in violence and crime in the streets.
    前后提到“使人了解”,一次用keep one better informed, 一次用allows one to follow。两句提到“最近的事件”和“最近的发展”,前面用 the current events,后面用 the latest developments。文中说到“坏的影响”,“坏的广告”,“坏的节目”,“坏的趣味”,四个“坏”都各不相同:negative effect, rubbishy commercials, harmful programs, bad tastes。两次表达“造成”的意思,一次用 lead to bad tastes and a distorted viewpoint, 一次用contributing to the rise in violence and crime.
    正是这种用词的变化,给文章带来了活力,使文章变得生动,耐读。一篇论述好学生的文章,肯定会多次提及“好学生”,在文章中变化使用brilliant students, top students, outstanding boys and girls, students of high ability 要比一味地使用good students, 给人以更多的美感。make (exert / devote / direct) untiring (painstaking / concerted / consistent / tremendous / persistent / sustained) efforts 又要比单纯的make efforts 难,困此前者获得较高的分数也是正常的。一个是Watching too much TV is harmful to our eyesight, 一个是Heavy exposure to TV will produce harmful effect on eyesight, 哪一个该取得较高的分数不是很清楚了吗?所以我们提倡在写作考试中大胆地运用一些较难的词汇,即使有点错,立地有点不稳,但还是要比难度系数不高但下地四平八稳得到更高的分数。
    有人认为现在不是提倡写作要简炼吗?这没有错,但是表达要简炼决不是简单,简炼是对啰唆而言的。
    例7
    以下a)句显得不够简炼,而b)句就是真正的简炼,但又不流于简单:
    a) The progress I have made makes me surprised.
    b) The progress I have made surprises me.
 
    a) This makes me conclude that money doesn't mean eveything.
    b) This leads me to the conclusion that money doesn't mean everything.
2. 句型的变化
    句子也是如此,我们提倡简炼,但不是说都用简单句。有人认为在写作考试中,采用简单句、短句,容易掌握,不大会出错,因而也最保险。这话没有错,但简单句用得太多,造成简单句的堆彻实际上是语言技巧不成熟、不老练,甚至语言水平低下的表现。在阅卷人员看来,同样的意思内容,一个考生能够运用比较复杂的句子结构来表达,其语言水平当然要比只会用简单句来表达的考生的语言水平高出一截,就是有点错也不妨碍他比后者取得较高的分数,因为他的难度系数要高。在某种意义上来说,在词数相同的作文中,语言水平越高,语言技巧越熟练,句子的数目也就越少。这就意味着句子长了,句子结构复杂了。
    当然,我们反对过多地使用简单句,并不是鼓励学生去刻意追求长句、复杂句。我们追求的是句子结构的多变。一篇文章能根据表达的内容使用不同的句子结构,会产生较好的艺术效果。
 
    例8
    The Career I Pursue的主体段:
    A variety of reasons have led me to choose this occupation over other more lucrative ones. First, teaching is learning. To make my lectures more interesting, I have to read more books, explore new knowledge and gain a better understanding of the world—the very thing I like to do in my life. Second, teaching means freedom. As a teacher, I can freely express my opinions and explain them in my own way since nobody will interfere with me. Finally, I like teaching because it offers a certain peace of mind. No more rushing to catching a morning bus, no more anxiety to please a boss, and no more worries about being laid off because you are getting old.
    文中有4 个词的短句First, teaching is learning. 也有27个词的长句To make my lectures more interesting, I have to read more books, explore new knowledge and gain a better understanding of the world—the very thing I like to do in my life. 有简单句,也有复杂句As a teacher, I can freely express my opinions and explain them in my own way since nobody will interfere with me; 还有同位语句,断裂句,排比句,比较句等,因而文章读起来节奏感强。
    所谓句子变化,主要是指句子的开头要有变化,句子的结构要有变化,句子的长度要有变化。
    不要连续使用几个简单句(如例9中的a)),要学会使用复杂句(如例9中的b))。
    例9
    a) Teenagers are pressured by school work. They are also encouraged by their peers. Under such circumstances, they resort to smoking. But sometimes they feel a little guilty.
    b) Pressured by school work and encouraged by their peers, teenagers often resort to smoking, though they feel a little guilty sometimes.
 
    a) College students now are primarily interested in grades and economic success. They are expected to cheat on exams more frequently. This is not like those who graduated 10 years ago. They are only concerned with their own personal future. They consider little problems of society. All these are reported by a recent study.
    b) A recent study reports that college students now are primarily interested in grades and economic success, that they are expected to cheat on exams more frequently than those who graduated 10 years ago, and that they are more concerned with their own personal future than with problems of society.
    不要总是以有生命的名词和人称代词开头(受汉语表达习惯的影响,不少考生总喜欢以I , People, We 等开头),如例10中的a).
    例10
    a) Many people think birth control is quite necessary in China.
    b) It is widely (commonly) thought / believed / held / accepted) that birth control is quite necessary in China.
 
    a) More and more people agree (realize / are aware) that women should enjoy full equality with men.
    b) There is a growing agreement (realization / awareness) that women should enjoy full equality with men.
 
    a) Many Chinese people have gone to the United States in the past 15 years.
    b) The past 15 years have brought many Chinese people to the United States.
 
    a) We almost forget this event.
    b) This event is now almost fading from our memory.
 
    a) Students should certainly make continuous efforts.
    b) Continuous efforts on the part of students are certainly required.
 
    a) We easily drew the conclusion through the investigation.
    b) The investigation easily led us to the conclusion.
 
    不要千篇一律地使用主动态(英语中被动结构的使用频率远高于汉语),如例11中的a).
 
    例11
    a) We are making great efforts to improve our English.
    b) Great efforts are being made to improve our English.
 
    a) We know very little about the nature of human beings.
    b) Little is known about the nature of human beings.
 
    a) Because of social demands, there appear many evening schools.
    b) Many evening schools are called into existence by social demands.
 
    a) We may think more of the elderly who live apart from their children.
    b) More thought may be given to the elderly who live apart from their children.
 
    不要总是用if(如果),because(因为), when(当)等口语意味较重的句子,如例12中的 a);要注意使用书面语体的句子,如例12中的b)。
 
    例12
    a) If you compare bicycles with cars carefully, you will find bicycles are superior to cars.
    b) Careful comparison of bicycles with cars will show the superiority of the former over the latter.
 
    a) If we only apply book knowledge, we will not get good results.
    b) The application of book knowledge alone won't bring you good results.
 
    a) If we can better understand the greater pressure of population growth, we will have a correct atitude towards family planning.
    b) A better understanding of the greater pressure of population growth is essential to a correct attitude towards family planning.
 
    a) When a woman sees that she is going to be laid off, she begins to worry all day and night.
    b) The mere prospect of lay-off would set a woman to worry all day and night.
 
    a) When our teacher had left, the heated discussion then ended.
    b) The departure of our teacher brought the heated discussion to an end.
 
    a) Only when we make continuous efforts, can we seize an opportunity when it occurs.
    b) Continuous efforts must be made before it is possible for us to seize an opportunity when it occurs.
 
    a) Because we cannot apply book knowledge to practice, we cannot handle real problems in sociey.
    b) The inability to apply book knowledge to practice prevents us from handling real problems in sociey.
 
    a) Because the decision recognizes the rights of students, so they all welcome it.
    b) Students all welcome the decision which recognizes their rights.
 
    不要对动词过分依赖,如例13中的a);要学会用名词结构来表达意思,如例13中的b)。
 
    例13
    a) The style of living has become more and more popular and accepted by more and more young people.
    b) The style of living has found its growing popularity and acceptance among young people.
 
    a) It is time for us to revise educational system and then provide it to our society.
    b) It is time for us to provide our society a revised educational system.
 
    a) If we are watching too much TV, our reading ability will be seriously affected.
    b) Heavy exposure to TV will exert an negative effect on our reading ability.
 
    a) If we don't recognize the serious problem of growing population, we will make a big mistake.
    b) Failure to recognize the seriousness of growing population will lead to a big mistake.
 
    不要总是用肯定句来表达,如例14中的a);要学会用否定句来表达肯定的意思,如例14 中的b)。
 
    例14
    a) Every young boy and girl wants to earn a little money to help cover higher college cost.
    b) There is hardly a young boy and girl who doesn't want to earn a little money to help cover higher college cost.
 
    a) Whenever you pick up a newspaper, you will always find advertisements.
    b) It is impossible to pick up a newspaper wihout finding advertisements.
 
    a) Gathering around and listening to mother or father read a good story is the best pastimes to bring a family closer together.
    b) Few pastimes bring a family closer together than gathering around and listening to mother or father read a good story.
 
    a) Food is the most basic issue to individual and national survival.
    b) No issue is as basic to individual and national survival as food.
 
    恰当地使用排比、平行句,如例15中的b)。
 
    例15
    a) I am in favor of equal rights for women. I think women should especially have the right to compete with men for jobs on equal terms. They should get the same pay as men for the same job. They should also have equal opportunities for promotion.
    b) I am in favor of equal rights for women, especially the right to compete with men for jobs on equal terms, the right to get the same pay as men for the same job, and the right to equal opportunities for promotion.
 
    a) The nationwide controversy over the current reforms will test the courage of our people. Through the controversy we can also see the determination of our government.
    b) The nationwide controversy over the current reforms will test the courage of our people and the determination of our government.
 
    a) For the first time in history Chinese citizens held such power in their own hands. In the past they have never been allowed such vigorous and unrestrained debate on politics.
    b) Never before in history have Chinese citizens held such power in their own hands. Never before in history have they been allowed such vigorous and unrestrained debate on politics.
 
第七部分    不忘最后读一遍
 
   40分钟的写作,时间再紧,也要留出两三分钟的时间把文章通读一遍,进行必要的修改。不要说我们初学写作的人,就是大作家写完一个章节或一部小说后都要反复读上几遍。在限时、紧张的写作中,出现错误,尤其是语言上的错误是不可避免的。如果把这些错误留在那里,不得到改正,就会影响整篇文章的质量。阅卷人虽然不大会按你文章中语言错误的累计数目进行扣分,但错误,尤其是一些幼稚的错误,会给阅卷人员留下不好的印象,从而影响文章的分数。
    那么修改应注意哪些方面呢?从结构方面来说:(1)看一看中心思想是不是突出?文章中有论述和材料是否都围绕着这个中心思想展开?如发现个别句子或例子游离于中心思想之外,甚至与中心思想发生冲突,就应把它从文章中去掉。(2)看一看段与段之间,句与句之间是否连贯?衔接是否自然,或给人一种断裂、跳跃的感觉?如发现这种情况,就要加一个句子或一些词,或改变一下说法,以求文章的连贯。
    但就修改来说,是主要还是放在语言上,即语法和词汇上。
    以下各例中,a)表示错误的或不宜提倡的句子,b)表示正确的或值得模仿的句子。
 
1.动词谓语的时态是否有错
 
     1
    a) We college students had enough time to take a parttime job, no matter how busy we         were ...
    b) We college students have enough time to take a parttime job, no matter how busy we are ...
    命题作文一般都是议论文,而写议论文一般都是用现在时态。只有举例,提到过去的事才会用到过去时。
 
     2
    a) Riding bicycles had more advantages than taking a bus.
    b) Riding bicycles had more advantages than taking a bus.
  &nbs, p; 考生, 中用过去时写作与, 他们教材课文体裁, (大多为叙述文、说明文)和平时写作练习(大多写个人经历的故事)有关,也与他们过度概括有关,认为所有文章都用过去时。
 
    3
    a) There are so many countries using English that it had been regarded as an international      language.
    b) There are so many countries using English that it has been regarded as an international language.
    在论述同一事情,即发生在同一时间里的事时,前后半句或相邻的几句在时态上要保持一致。
 
2.主语和谓语,名词和代词,以及人称是否保持一致
 
     4
    a) The eating habit of Chinese people have changed in the past decade.
    b) The eating habit of Chinese people has changed in the past decade.
    不管主语和谓语隔开多远,主语当中还有修饰成分,谓语要和真正的主语在数上保持一致。
 
    5
    a) Now fruits and vegetables can be seen everywhere when it is in season.
    b) Now fruits and vegetables can be seen everywhere when they are in season.
 
    6
    a) I feel proud to come to our university.
    b) I feel proud to come to this university
    our和主语 I不一致,或把 our改成 my,或改成 this。而这里用 this 较妥。
 
3 修饰语是否放在正确的位置上
 
     7
    a) Without television, people can't get information which comes from other parts of the world immediately.
    b)Without television, people can't immediately get information which comes from other parts of the world.
    a) 句子,immediately 显然放错了位置。是“得到迅速从各地传来的消息”,还是“迅速得到从各地传来的消息”?意思含糊不清。
 
    8
    a) At the age of six, my father began to give me English lessons.
    b) When I was five years old, my father began to give me English lessons.
    a) 句子,At the age of six 放在这个位置上,变成了“我父亲六岁的时候”。改变说法,可以解决这个问题。
 
     9
    a) To improve one's writing skill. regular practice is necessary.
    b) To improve one's writing skill, one must make regular practice.
    不定式短语的逻辑主语决不是regular practice,为了把逻辑关系表达清楚,要么把不定式短语改成If one wants to improve his writing skill,要么把主句改成one must make regular practice.
 
4.表示相同的意思,是否用了平行语法结构
 
    10
    a) With the computer, one can do shopping, banking and read at home.
    b) With the computer, one can do shopping, banking and reading at home.
    can do shopping, banking and read at home, 用语法平行结构来衡量,用动词原形 read是不妥的,为了和 do shopping, do banking 保持结构上平行,接下来的一个内容要用do reading.
 
    11
 
    a) Nowadays, people not only eat enough food, but also eat better.
    b) Nowadays, people not only eat more, but also eat better.
    用 not only...but also, both...and, whether...or, either...or, as well as, along with等能连接两个成分的连词,前后两个成分在结构上要保持一致。用 eat enough food, eat better不如用 eat more, eat better,都用副词。
 
    12
    a) Participating in sports is good for our physical health, and through it we can also train our character.
    b) Participating in sports is good for our physical health, and it is also beneficial to our character-training.
    在说同样的事时,相邻的句子尽可能在语法结构上保持一致。
 
5.用代词时,指代是否清楚
 
    13
    a) Sometimes teachers will inform students of the heavy burden they have to bear.
    b) Sometimes a teacher will inform students of the heavy burden he has to bear.
    they 即可指代teachers, 也可指代 students,明显的是指代不清。其实只要把其中一个名词变成单数,用he和 they分别代不同的名词,就清楚了。因为 a teacher也可泛指所有教师。
 
    14
    a) Someone believes that the teacher's task is to give students knowledge, which may not be true.
    b) Someone believes that the teacher's task is to give students knowledge, a notion which may not be true.
    which指代什么不清楚,指 knowledge,还是指前面整个句子?如果指 Someone believes,最好用 a notion或an idea归纳一下整个句子的意思,然后引出从句。
 
    15
    a) People have been fighting against the influence of TV commercials, but it often proves useless.
    b)People have been fighting against the influence of TV commercials, but the effort often proves useless.
it 指什么?如指influence,则在 it often proves useless 这个句子中显然不通。写作人知道it指人们的努力,但effort 这个词前面没有出现过,就不能用it。
 
6 相邻的句子,是否避免了不必要的结构转变
 
    16
    a) While we reuce the number of vehicles, the speed of traffic can be increased.
    b) While the number of vehiles is reduced, the speed of traffic is increased.
    两个非常相关的意思,不要一个使用主动结构,一个使用被动结构。
 
    17
    a) Each of us may take a parttime job to help support ourselves, but if you spend too much time on it, your study will be affected.
    b) Each of us may take a parttime job to help support ourselves, but too much time spent on it, our studies will be affected.
    前半句用each of us和ourselves,后半句却用you和 your study,应一致起来。
 
7.可数名词与不可数名词是否用得正确
 
    18
    a) TV presents us with many useful informations.
    b) TV presents us with a lot of useful information
    还有evidence, advice, knowledge等都是不可数名词,都不能用复数。另外, many, a great number of, another, few 等只能与可数名词配用。而a great amount of, a great deal of, less, much, 等应与不可数名词配用。
 
    19
    a) Making our cities greener is not an easy work.
    b) Making our cities greener is not an easy job.
    work 用作可数名词是“作品”这类意思,而表示“工作”时,不可数。同样,在 Word has been sent out that those who cheat on exams will be punished.这个句子中,要用单数word表示“信息”。
 
    20
    a)Each people has his own opportunities.
    b) Each person has his own opportunities.
    people作“人民”、“人们”解时,是集体名词,不能与each配用。 a people或 peoples表示民族、国家。在正式语体中也不能说 less people,而应说 few people。
 
8.冠词是否用得正确
 
    21
    a) Book knowledge is important, but we should also learn something in the society.
    b) Book knowledge is important, but we should also learn something in society.
    用定冠词the, 是特指意义,而这里没有这个特指意义。同样,在When I was in the high school, I always have a beautiful picture of the college life 中,两个the都应去掉。
 
    22
    a) If there were no electirc power, we would have to do everything by the hands.
    b) If there were no electric power, we would have to do everything by hand.
    表示用手 (by hand), 走路 (on foot), 上课 (in class), 上学 (go to school), 住院 (at hospitable)等,都不用定冠词。
 
    23
    a) If there were no electric power, factory would stop producing goods, car, bus and train would stop running.
    b) If there were no electric power, factories would stop producing goods; cars, buses and trains would stop running.
    用可数名词时,要么前面有冠词(the, a, an)或代词(his, her, my), 要么以复数形成出现。不能像中文名词那样没有语法变化。
 
9.句子的主谓宾是否齐全。
 
    24
    a) TV now plays an important role in our daily life, Because we cannot live without it.
    b) TV now plays an important role in our daily life. because we cannot live without it.
    中文用“因为”引出的句子可以独立,但英语不行,作为从句,只能附属主句。
 
    例25
    a) There are many ways to contact with society. For example, join in clubs, taking parttime jobs and helping the poor.
    b) There are many ways to contact with society, for example, joining clubs, taking parttime jobs and helping the poor.
    for example 引出的应是句子,如 For example we may join clubs, take part-time jobs and help the poor。有时也可不自立为句,跟在一个句子后面,借用主语。
 
    26
    a) If no electricity, all activities such as watching TV and seeing movies will be impossible.
    b) If there is no electricity, all activities such as wathcing TV and seeing movies will be impossible.
    if no electricity(如果没有电),但句中的no不是动词,也就是说这个从句缺了谓语。
 
10.过渡词是否用得合适
 
    27
    a) Because some college graduates could not find a better job, so they decided to continue to read for a second degree.
    b) As come college graduates could not find a better job, they decided to continue to read for a second degee.
    汉语可以说 "因为......所以", 但英语不能连用"because...so".
 
    28
    a) Although an opportunity is rare, but we must be ready to seize it.
    b) Although an opportunity is rare, we must be ready to seize it.
    同样,汉语可以说“虽然......但日”,而英语要么用although,要么用 but, 两者不能同时用。
 
11.词语的搭配是否正确
 
    29
    a) We students should learn/study as much knowledge as possible.
    b) We students should acquire/obtain as much knowledge as possible.
    “学习知识”是考生作文中经常要表达的,但不少人用错。英语中能和knowledge 搭配的是obtain, acquire, gain等。
 
    30
    a) With a rise in the number of cars and buses, traffic in Shanghai has become more and more crowded.
    b) With a rise in the number of cars and buses, traffic in Shanghai has become increasingly heavier.
    traffic不和 crowded搭配,说 “交通拥挤繁忙”,应说 traffic is heavy/busy.如同中文里的“速度快”,英语不说 "The speed of cars is fast/quick." 而是说"The speed of cars is high/fantastic."或"cars are much faster."
 
    31
    a) People begin to eat more vice food.
    b) People begin to eat more non-staple foodstuff.
    副总统是vice presidents, 副食品应是 non-staple foodstuff, 而副经理、副教授、副作用分别是 assistant managers, associate professors, side effects,搭配不同。
 
12.词语是否用得得当
   
    32
    a) Actually, traffic jams have effected our daily life.
    b) Actually, traffic jams have affected our daily life.
    表示“不良影响”,动词用affect, 而不是effect。
 
    33
    a) When old problems are solved, new problems will rise.
    b) When old problems are solved, new problems will arise.
     rise 是“起来”、“上升”的意思,arise 才是“出现”的意思。
 
    34
    a) There are many factors leading to changes in people's diet. At first, people can afford expensive food.
    b) There are many factors leading to changes in people's diet. First, people can afford expensive food.
    At first 是“起先”的意思,暗示后来情况完全两样。表示“首先”,要用first。就如 highly 和 high 是两个同的意思,前者是作“非常”解,后者是“高”的意思。Women have risen high in social status.不能用 highly。
 
13.是否重复使用了表示意思的词语
 
    35
    a) In my opinion, I believe the present educational system is in need of reform.
    b) In my opinion, the present education system is in need of reform.
    I believe 的意思已包括在In my opinion 里了,用一个就可以了。
 
    36
    a) The reason why people choose to live in the country is because there is no pollution nor noise there.
    b) The reason why people choose to live in the country is that there is no pollution nor noise there.
    reason, why, because 都是指同一意思。至少要去掉一个。
 
    例37
    a) People try to find a solution to solve the problem.
    b) People try to find a solution to the problem.
 
14 介词是否用得正确
 
    38
    a) After four years, we all graduated from college and entered society.
    b) Four years later, we all graduated from college and entered society.
    用过去时时,表示四年以后,应用four years later,而不是 after four years。用于表示将来的四年后,也不用after,而是用介词 in,如“We will all graduate in four years”。
 
    39
    a) Many college students have a strong desire to be independent on their parents.
    b) Many college students have a strong desire to be independent of their parents.
    “依靠”的意思是用dependent on,但“不依赖、独立”却要用 independent of。
 
15.词性是否用得正确
 
    40
    a) The computer like TV, it has both advantages and disadvantages.
    b) Like TV, the computer has both advantages and disadvantages.
    表示“像”,like是一个介词,这里误作了动词。
  
    41
    a) Obviously, our country would stop develop if no electricity.
    b) Obviously, our country would stop developing in there were no electricity.
    这里,develop 应该用动名词developing,而且 no不是动词,说“没有”,应当用 there is not (no) 或have (has) not
 
    42
    a) Riding bicycles conveniences my work.
    b) Riding bicycles is convenient to my work.
    convenience 不是动词。表示“方便”,可用be convenient to的结构。
 
16.句子是否有明确的主语
 
    43
    a) Unlike the movie, TV shows on continuously, and doesn't need to pay an extra money.
    b) Unlike the movie, TV shows on continuously, and one doesn't need to pay an extra money.
    doesn't need to pay an extra money 的主语是什么?显然不是TV。汉语可以说:电视可以一直看下去,无需再花什么钱。把主语省去,但英语一定要有明确的主语。
 
    44
    a) Too easy or too difficult is no good for us.
    b) The books which are too easy or too difficult are no good for us.
    Too easy or too difficult是形容词短语,不能作主语,尽管汉语可以说“太容易或太难对我们都不利”。因此,加上The books which are,主语就有了。
 
    例45
    a) Reading books can acquire knowledge.
    b) Through reading one can acquire knowledge.
    看上去句子有了主语:Reading books,但这是假主语,因为acquire knowledge 的主语需是人。汉语的主语和谓语的关系可以是主题和评论的关系,可以说读书能获得知识。但英语不行,一定要有逻辑主谓关系。
 
17.一个句子是否确保只有一个动词
    46
    a) People think go to the movie will cost a lot of money.
    b) People think that going to the movie will cost them a lot of money.
    汉语一个句子里可以集结几个动词,形成连动结构:“到那里去看电影响”或兼语结构“叫我去看电影”,但英语不能这样用。
 
    47
    a) There are many people take part in sports and games now.
    b) Many people take part in sports and games now.
    同样,汉语可以说:有许多人参加体育活动。但英语一个句子只能保留主要动词,或用从句动词:“There are many people who take part in sports and games now.”。
 
    48
    a) Although difficulty is exist, but we can overcome it.
    正:Although difficulty does exist, we can overcome it.
    “困难是存在的”,英语不能用“is exist”。(顺便指出,用了Although,就不能用but。)
 
    18.表达是否符合英语的习惯
 
    英语不仅在语言上有差异,在文化上也有不同。英语有某种说法,汉语里不一定有一模一样的说法。好多东西是汉语特有的,英语是无法表达的或我们还无法表达。碰到这种情况,我们采取放弃的办法,要是像例49所示的几个句子那样,硬要表达,不仅意思不清,还会闹出笑话。
 
    49
    a) We should put out hearts into the study.
    b) We young people are now living in sugar water.
    a) In a society where men are heavy and women are light, women cannot enjoy full equality.
    a) Peopl set off firecrackers to congratuate the red and white happy things.
    a) We should advocate five talks and four beauties.
    这五个句子都是“中国式英语”,请读者修改成地道的英语。
 
第八部分  写作单项训练(Exercises 1-7)
 
Exercise 1
 
1. Choose the word that best completes the sentence:
    1) John was _______ (lying, laying) in the sun while Jack was ________ (lying, laying) bricks.
    2) If the cost of living ________ (raises, rises), the company will ______ (raise, rise) the wages.
    3) The brain needs a ________ (continuous, continual) supply of blood.
    4) There are no _______ (empty, vacant) positions in the company.
    5) Considerable progress has been _____ (made, done) in domestic science.
    6) In the 18th century _________ (ernigrants, immigrants, migrants) poured into America.
    7) ________ (Last, At last) the spring has come after a long winter.
    8) English is the _________ (native, mother) tongue of most Americans.
    9) The mountain hotel offered magnificent _________ (views, scenes).
    10) He spoke to his father _________ (respectably, respectfully, respectively).
 
Exercise 2
 
1. Identify and correct the mistakes, if any, in the following sentences.
    1) Geography offers us knowledge of foreign countries.
    2) Jack ran to classroom where the teacher was giving the test with his heart pounding.
    3) Having almost no money, my survival depended entirely on my parents.
    4) After returning home, my family welcomed me with presents.
    5) Looking out of the window, the grassland stretches as far as the eye can see.
    6) He likes to swim, to sing and football.
    7) I bought this dictionary at a secondhand bookstore which cost five dollars.
    8) Because he said nothing does not mean that he agreed to your proposal.
    9) If he lives to be eighty, he would be able to see the year 2000.
    10) China has a population of 1.2 billion people.
    11) I enjoy very much the movie Titanic.
    12) Birds do not need food very much.
    13) Many great men rise from poverty. Abraham Lincoln, for example.
    14) The room was empty, everyone had gone.
    15) The number of students who have become interested in English are increasing.
    16) One reason I appreciate classical music is the enjoyment you get from listening to it.
    17) His article is full of many humorous remarks.
    18) Man will surely learn more about the outer space.
    19) To keep friendship evergreen, petty quarrels should be avoided.
    20) Follow the following procedures: first, get your application forms; next, fill them out; and last, you should pay the charges.
2. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means the same as the sentence printed before it.
    1) Joe prefers sleeping to working.
      Joe would __________________________________________________________.
    2) They decided that all heavy goods vehicles should be banned.
      They decision was that there ____________________________________________.
    3) Under no circumstances would they issue him with a passport.
      They _______________________________________________________________.
    4) He was not only unfriendly but very rude.
      As well _____________________________________________________________.
    5) Leave them alone and they'll come home by themselves.
      They'll come home by themselves ________________________________________.
    6) The police couldn't find the owner of the bicycle.
      The owner __________________________________________________________.
    7) He's supposed to close and lock the safe every evening before leaving.
      It's his _____________________________________________________________.
    8) The idea was so ridiculous that no one agreed to it.
      So ridiculous _______________________________________________________.
    9) Owing to a traffic accident, he arrived late.
      His late ____________________________________________________________.
    10) But for his help, I should never have managed.
       If it hadn't ________________________________________________________.
    11) I never even touched your books.
       I didn't so much ___________________________________________________.
    12) I suppose you've heard the news already.
       You must ________________________________________________________.
    13) He was very fat because he ate too much.
       As a consequence _________________________________________________.
    14) I don't think I will go to the cinema tonight because it is raining.
       My reason _______________________________________________________.
    15) The bus service seems to be particularly bad on Sundays.
       There seems _____________________________________________________.
    16) The cook is brilliant but he knows nothing about French sauces.
       Brilliant ________________________________________________________.
    17) My promoting to Manager was due to your help.
       It was thanks to you _______________________________________________.
    18) The burglar alarm rang as soon as he climbed through the window.
       No sooner ______________________________________________________.
    19) I should like someone to take me out to dinner.
       What I should like ________________________________________________.
    20) I now regret not staying longer.
       I am sorry now __________________________________________________.
 
Exercise 3
 
Fill in the blanks with appropriate connective words.
1. European universities and universities in the United States are different in many ways. _________, European students enroll in fewer courses each term than United States student do. _____________, European student seldom live at a university. __________, they live at home and travel to classes. __________, United States professors often ask their students questions or allow their students to form discussion groups. ________, European professors ask students to write fewer papers than United States professors do. __________, European students' final examinations are usually oral, __________ American students take written final examinations. ___________, a European university is mainly a place to study. ___________, at most United States universities, social activities take up a large part of the students' time.
2. The problem with an old car is that it is always needing something replaced or repaired. _______, about the time the fourth tire is replaced, the first one begins to wear thin again. _________, if the front brakes are renewed, ________ the rear brakes start to go wrong. __________ common problem is that some kind of pump is always breaking down and needing replacement. __________ the air pump may develop trouble, _________ the fuel pump may go bad, and _______ the water pump may give up. __________, everything under the hood seems to need a new hose or a new valve. _________ the car new transmission or a new engine. There seems to be no end to the trouble and expense of keeping up and old car.
 
Exercise 4
 
Cross out the unnecessary wording:
 
    Perhaps the most interesting person I have ever met is an interesting Italian professor of philosophy who teaches courses at the University of Pisa in Italy. Athough I last met this man eight years ago, I have not forgotten over the long years his special qualities. First of all, I was impressed from the beginning by his complete devotion to teaching his students. Because his lectures were always well-prepared and invariably clearly delivered, a great many students always swarmed into his classroom, filling the classroom to capacity. His many followers also appreciated the fact that he thoroughly believed in what he taught to students and that he was always intellectually stimulating to hear. Furthermore he could be counted on in every class session to explain his ideas in an imaginative way, introducing such various aids to student understanding as oil paintings, phonograph records, pieces of sculpture, and guest lecturers who were invited to speak to the class. Once he even sang a song in class before the students' eyes in order to illustrate a philosophical point. Second, I admired the fact that he would confer with students at almost any time outside of the classroom or talk with them on the telephone. Drinking coffee in the snack bar after having taught a class, he would easily make friends with students with great ease. Sometimes he would issue a challenge to a student to join with him in a game of chess. At other times, he would quite readily join groups of students to discuss subjects raging broadly from astronomy to scuba diving. Many young people visited him at one time or another in his office for academic advice; others came to his home for the purpose of social evenings. Finally, I was favorably impressed and attracted by his lively wit. He believed that no class hour is a success unless during it, the students and the professor have a reason to join together to share several chuckles and at least one loud laugh. Through his inimitable and captivating sense of humor, he made learning much more enjoyable and much more lasting. If it is true, as it seems to be, that life makes a wise man smile and a foolish man cry, then my friend is without question truly a wise man. Probably the best example he could possibly have given to us of his wit is this interesting idea with which he once ended a lecture:" It is as dangerous for man to model himself upon his invention, the machine, as it would be for God to model himself upon His invention."
 
Exercise 5
 
Transitional words and expressions.
 
    例1.(启)In general/Generally speaking/On the whole, studying too hard my be harmful to atudents. (启)Lately/Currently/At present/Now/Recently, many teachers expect their pupils to do more work than they can handle. (承)Moreover/Also/Furthermore/Meanwhile/What is more, parents do not realize that pressing their children to study harder than called for can injure their health.(承)Certainly/In fact/Obviously/Of course, most parents know that growing boys and girls need relaxations as well as exercise.(转)Nevertheless/However/On the other hand/Unfortunately, many students have no choice but to burn the candle at both ends in order to get good grades and please their parents. But a physically weak or socially deprived child may not be able to keep up with such a hurried pace.(合)As a result/Consequently/Thus/Therefore/Hence/In brief/In conclusion, some students may very possibly fail in school because of this pressure to study in excess of what is required.
    例2.Chinese differs from English in several ways.(启)In the first place/To begin with/First of all/To start with/First(ly), their word orders are different.(承)For instance/for example/As an example, in English, a common greeting is "How are you?".(转)Yet/But/However/Nevertheless, in chinese, "You are how?" is correct.(承)Second(ly)/Also/Besides/Next/What is more/Furthermore/Moreover, in Chinese, our verbs do not have the past tense; Instead, we know the time from the adverb. In English,(转)however/on the other hand/nevertheless/yet, time is indicated by the tense.(承)In addition to/Besides/Apart from these problems, Chinese have many small differences.(承)For instance/For example/As an example, Chinese does not distinguish between "he" and "she", nor is there a difference between "a" and "an" as there is in English.(合)Undoubtedly/Certainly/Indeed/Obviously/Thus/In short/In brief, it is these differences that make English difficult for the Chinese students to learn.
 
Exercise 6
 
    paragraph development
    1)列举法(Listing)
    1.Advertisement can be beneficial to people. First, it is informative and can help people buy and sell goods. Second, it can widen people's knowledge, and make people more experienced. Finally, people can enjoy themselves in watching those funny and interesting advertisement programs.
    2.There are mainly two opinions on the relationship between man and machines. Some people believe that it will be possible for automatic machines, especially electronic computers, to replace man completely in the future. Others, however, argue that man is the decisive factor in production and the potential of man's intelligence is practically unlimited.
    列举常用的表达方法有:first, second, in the first place, first of all, to begin with, in the second place, next, also, besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition, what is more, beyond that, for one thing, for another, finally.
    (2)举例法(Exemplification)
    例1.Pollution is becoming more and more serious all over the world. For example, the poisonous gas sent off by factories and automobiles has made the air unhealthy for people to breathe. Again waste water keeps pouring into rivers and lakes; as a result, any water lives are dying out. Furthermore, everywhere we go today, we can find rubbish carelessly disposed. Pollution is, in fact threatening our existence.
    例2.In the past, a good student refers to one who was only good at studies. For example, in the school, what the school master cared about was how well the student did in his school subjects. It did not matter whether a student had good health or not as long as he got the top marks. At home, again before leaving for school, the parents would again and again tell their children to study hard and try to get good grades. As a result, many students showed little interest in anything else.
    举例法常用的表达方法有:for example, for instance, as an example, as a case in point, as an illustration, such as, namely, that is, like, say.
    (3)因果法(Cause and Effect)
    Nowadays there is often a misunderstanding between parent and child. The most obvious reason for this lack of communication is that they grew up at different times and therefore have different likes and dislikes for the things around them. Also the parent is often too busy to listen patiently to the explanation of the child when there is a misunderstanding. Both of them take it for granted that there is a "generation gap."
    原因与结果常用的表达方法有:because, because of, as, since, for, owing to, due to, on account of, on the ground of, as a result of, thus, so, consequently, hence, therefore, accordingly, as a result, for this reason, as a consequence, on that account, it follows that等
    (4)对比和比较法(Comparison and Contrast)
    The younger generation is essentially different from the older generation. The world of older people has vanished, and they do not understand all of the problems of the modern world. On the other hand, the younger people have grown up with these problems, and they are deeply concerned about them. The older generation still controls the power in business organizations, government, and education. The young people want to make changes in these areas to fit the needs of modern society. In order to reconcile their differences, both generations must realize that the world has changed, and that new responses are necessary for many of the problems of society.
    对比比较常用的表达方法有:similarly, likewise, in the same way, equally important, like, both, the same as, in common, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, unlike, in contrast, whereas, rather than, conversely, instead, by contrast等。
    (5)分类法(Classification)
    There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standard and bestsellers unread, untouched. This deluded individual owns woodpile and ink, not books. The second has a great many books -- a few of them read through, most of them dipped into, but all of them as clean as the day they were bought. This person would probably like to make books his own, but is restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance. The third has a few books or many -- every one of them dog-eared and dilapidated, shaken and loosened by continual use, marked and scribbled in from front to back. This man owns books.
 
Exercise 7
 
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.
    ___________ is shown in the pictures, we can see ________ that with the __________ of commercial fishing, the number of fishes ________ decreased. In one picture, there were various kinds of fish and only one fishing-boat in 1900. ________ the contrary, in 1995 there was only one fish, _________ many fishing-boats.
    The ________ of this picture is to show us that _________ attention has to be paid to the decrease of ocean ___________. Owing to ___________ the number of fishes has obviously decreased. If we let this situation ___________ as it is, we won't know where fish is in the future. By that time, our environment will ___________ a great destruction.
    Therefore, it is __________ for us to take _________ measures. For one thing, we should __________ to our authorities to make strict laws to control commercial fishing. For another, we should __________ the awareness of people that the ocean resources are very vital to us. ________ in this way can we protect our ocean resources. Also I believe that we humans can _________ this difficulty, and we will have a _________ future.
 
Study the following two pictures carefully and write and essay to
1) describe the pictures,
2) deduce the purpose of the drawer of the pictures, and
3) suggest counter-measures.
You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
A brief History of World Commercial Fishing
 

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