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2012考研英语复习 阅读理解全真模拟题
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第一部分  阅读理解全真模拟题(1994-2002年)
 
Unit  1
 
Passage 1
 
    The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most. Private businessmen, striving to make profits, produce these goods and services in competition with other businessmen; and the profit motive, operating under competitive pressures, largely determines how these goods and services are produced. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it.
    An important factor in a market-oriented economy is the mechanism by which consumer demands can be expressed and responded to by producers. In the American economy, this mechanism is provided by a price system, a process in which prices rise and fall in response to relative demands of consumers and supplies offered by seller-producers. If the products is in short supply relative to the demand, the price will be did up and some consumers will be eliminated from the market. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which it turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product. Thus, price is the regulating mechanism in the American economic system.
    The important factor in a private-enterprise economy is that individuals are allowed to own productive resources (private property), and they are permitted to hire labor gain control over natural resources, and produce goods and services for sale at a profit. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.
 
51. In Line 7, Para. 1, "the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes" means ___________.
    [A] Americans are never satisfied with their incomes
    [B] Americans tend to overstate their incomes
    [C] Americans want to have their incomes increased
    [D] Americans want to increase the purchasing power of their incomes
52. The first two sentences in the second paragraph tell us that _______________.
    [A] producers can satisfy the consumers by mechanized production
    [B] consumers can express their demands through producers
    [C] producers decide the prices of products
    [D] supply and demand regulate prices
53. According to the passage, a private-enterprise economy is characterized by ____________.
    [A] private property and rights concerned
    [B] manpower and natural resources control
    [C] ownership of productive resources
    [D] free contracts and prices
54. The passage is mainly about __________________.
    [A] how American goods are produced
    [B] how American consumers buy their goods
    [C] how American economic system works
    [D] how American businessmen make their profits
 
Passage 2
 
    One hundred and thirteen million Americans have at least one bank-issued credit card. They give their owners automatic credit in stores, restaurants, and hotels, at home, across the country, and even abroad, and they make many banking services available as well. More and more of these credit cards can be read automatically, making it possible to withdraw or deposit money in scattered locations, whether or not the local branch bank is open. For many of us the "cashless society" is not on the horizon-it's already here.
    While computers offer these conveniences to consumers, they have many advantages for sellers too. Electronic cash registers can do much more than simply ring up sales. They can keep a wide range of records, including who sold what, when, and to whom. This information allows businessmen to keep track of their list of goods by showing which items are being sold and how fast they are moving. Decisions to reorder or return goods to suppliers can then be made. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employees are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns. Computers are relied on by manufacturers for similar reasons. Computer-analyzed marketing reports can help to decide which products to emphasize now, which to develop for the future, and which to drop. Computers keep track of goods in stock, of raw materials on hand, and even of the production process itself.
    Numerous other commerical enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers.
 
55. According to the passage, the credit card enables its owner to ___________.
    [A] withdraw as much money from the bank as he wishes
    [B] obtain more convenient services than other people do
    [C] enjoy greater trust from the storekeeper
    [D] cash money wherever he wishes to
56. From the last sentence of the first paragraph we learn that ______________.
    [A] in the future all the Americans will use credit cards
    [B] credit cards are mainly used in the United State today.
    [C] nowadays many Americans do not pay in cash
    [D] it is now more convenient to use credit cards than before
57. The phrase "ring up sales"(Line 2, Para. 2) most probably means "______________"
    [A] make an order of goods
    [B] record sales on a cash register
    [C] call the sales manager
    [D] keep track of the goods in stock
58. What is this passage mainly about?
    [A] Approaches to the commercial use of computers.
    [B] conveniences brought about by computers in business.
    [C] Significance of automation in commercial enterprises.
    [D] Advantages of credit cards in business.
 
Passage 3
 
    Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age. For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.
    Although we focus on the needs of exceptional children, we find ourselves describing their environment as well. While the leading actor on the stage captures our attention, we are aware of the importance of the importance of the supporting players and the scenery of the play itself. Both the family and the society in which exceptional children live are often the full expression of society's understanding-the knowledge, hopes, and fears that are passed on to the next generation.
    Education in any society is a mirror of that society. In that mirror we can see the strengths, the weaknesses, the hopes, the prejudices, and the central values of the culture itself. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.
    "All men are created equal." We've heard it many times, but it still has important meaning for education in a democratic society. Although the phrase was used by this country's founders to denote equality before the law, it has also been interpreted to mean equality of opportunity. That concept implies educational opportunity for all children-the right of each child to receive help in learning to the limits of his or her capacity, whether that capacity be small or great. Recent court decisions have confirmed the right of all children--disabled or not--to an appropriate education, and have ordered that public schools take the necessary steps to provide that education. In response, schools are modifying their programs, adapting instruction to children who are exceptional, to those who cannot profit substantially from regular programs.
 
59. In paragrah 2, the author cites the example of the leading actor on the stage to show that _________.
    [A] the growth of exceptional children has much to do with their family and the society
    [B] exceptional children are more influenced by their families than normal children are
    [C] exceptional children are the key interest of the family and society
    [D] the needs of the society weigh much heavier than the needs of the exceptional children
60. The reason that the exceptional children receive so much concern in education is that _________.
    [A] they are expected to be leaders of the society
    [B] they might become a burden of the society
    [C] they should fully develop their potentials
    [D] disabled children deserve special consideration
61. This passage mainly deals with ____________.
    [A] the differences of children in their learning capabilities
    [B] the definition of exceptional children in modern society
    [C] the special educational programs for exceptional children
    [D] the necessity of adapting education to exceptional children
62. From this passage we learn that the educational concern for exceptional children _________.
    [A] is now enjoying legal support
    [B] disagrees with the tradition of the country
    [C] was clearly stated by the country's founders
    [D] will exert great influence over court decisions
 
Passage 4
 
    "I have great confidence that by the end of the decade we'll know in vast detail how cancer cells arise," says microbiologist Robert Weinberg, an expert on cancer. "But," he cautions, "some people have the idea that once one understands the causes, the cure will rapidly follow. Consider Pasteur, he discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available."
    This year, 50 percent of the 910,000 people who suffer from cancer will survice at least five years. In the year 2000, the National Cancer Institute estimates, that figure will be 75 percent. For some skin cancers, the five-year survival rate is as high as 90 percent. But other survival statistics are still discouraging--13 percent for lung cancer, and 2 percent for cancer of the pancreas.
    With as many as 120 varieties in existence, discovering how cancer works is not easy. The researchers made great progress in the early 1970s, when they discovered that oncogenes, which are cancer-causing genes, are inactive in normal cells. Anything from cosmic rays to radiation to diet may activate a dormant oncogene, but how remains unknown. If several oncogenes are driven into action, the cell, unable to turn them off, becomes cancerous.
    The exact mechanisms involved are still mysterious, but the likelihood that many cancers are initiated at the level of genes suggests that we will never prevent all cancers. "Changes are a normal part of the evolutionary process," says oncologist William Hayward. Environmental factors can never be totally eliminated; as Hayward points out. "We can't prepare a medicine against cosmic rays."
    The prospects for cure, though still distant, are brighter.
    "First, we need to understand how the normal cell controls itself. Second, we have to determine whether there are a limited number of genes in cells which are always responsible for at least part of the trouble. If we can understand how cancer works, we can counteract its action.
 
63. The example of Pasteur in the passage is used to __________.
    [A] predict that the secret of cancer will be disclosed in a decade
    [B] indicate that the prospects for curing cancer are bright
    [C] prove that cancer will be cured in fifty to sixty years
    [D] warn that there is still a long way to go before cancer can be conquered
64. The author implies that by the year 2000, ____________
    [A] there will be a drastic rise in the five-year survival rate of skin-cancer patients
    [B] 90 percent of the skin-cancer patients today will still be living
    [C] the survival statistics will be fairly even among patients with various cancers
    [D] there won't be a drastic increase of survival rate of all cancer patients
65. Oncogenes are cancer-causing genes ____________.
    [A] that are always in operation in a healthy person
    [B] which remain unharmful so long as they are not activated
    [C] that can be driven out of normal cells
    [D] which normal cell can't turn off
66. The word "dormant' in the third paragraph most probably means ________.
    [A] dead       [B] ever-present      [C] inactive       [D] potential
 
Passage 5
 
    Discoveries in science and technology are thought by "untaught minds" to come in blinding flashes or as the result of dramatic accidents. Sir Alexander Fleming did not, as legend would have it, look at the mold on a piece of cheese and get the idea for penicillin there and then. He experimented with antibacterial substances for nine years before he made his discovery. Inventions and innovations almost always come out of laborious trial and error. Innovation is like soccer; even the best players miss the goal and have their shots blocked much more frequently than they score.
    The point is that the players who score most are the ones who take the most shots at the goal-and so it goes with innovation in any field of activity. The prime difference between innovators and others is one of approach. Everybody gets ideas, but innovators work consciously on theirs, and they follow them through until they prove practicable or otherwise. What ordinary people see as fanciful abstractions, professional innovators see as solid possibilities.
    "Creative thinking may mean simply the realization that there's no particular virtue in doing things the way they have always been done," wrote Rudolph Flesch, a language authority. This accounts for our reaction to seemingly simple innovations like plastic garbage bags and suitcases on wheels that make life more convenient: "How come nobody thought of that before?"
    The creative approach begins with the proposition that nothing is as it appears. Innovators will not accept that there is only one way to do any thing. Faced with getting from A to B, the average person will automatically set out on the best-known and apparently simplest route. The innovator will search for alternate courses, which may prove easier in the long run and are bound to be more interesting and challenging even if they lead to dead ends.
    Highly creative individuals really do march to a different drummer.
 
67. What does the author probably mean by "untaught mind" in the first paragraph?
    [A] A person ignorant of the hard work involved in experimentation.
    [B] A citizen of a society that restricts personal creativity.
    [C] A person who has had no education.
    [D] An individual who often comes up with new ideals by accident.
68. According to the author, what distinguishes innovators from non-innovators?
    [A] The variety of ideas they have.
    [B] The intelligence they possess.
    [C] The way they deal with problems.
    [D] The way they present their findings.
69. The author quotes Rudolph Flesch in Paragraph 3 because ____________.
    [A] Rudolph Flesch is the best-known expert in the study of human creativity
    [B] the quotation strengthens the assertion that creative individuals look for new ways of doing things
    [C] the reader is familiar with Rudolph Flesch's point of view
    [D] the quotation adds a new idea to the information previously presented
70. The phrase "march to a different drummer" (the last line of the passage) suggests that highly creative individuals are ________________.
    [A] diligent in pursuing their goals
    [B] reluctant to follow common ways of doing things
    [C] devoted to the progress of science
    [D] concerned about the advance of society
 
Unit 2
 
Passage 1
 
    Money spent on advertising is money spent as well as any I know of. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices. By drawing attention to new ideas it helps enormously to raise standards of living. By helping to increase demand it ensures an increased need for labour, and is therefore an effective way to fight unemployment. It lowers the costs of services: without advertisements your daily newspaper would cost four times as much, the price of your television licence would need to be doubled, and travel by bus or tube would cost 20 per cent more.
    And perhaps most important of all, advertising provides a guarantee of reasonable value in the products and services you buy. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements. He might fool some people for a little while through misleading advertising. He will not do so for long, for mercifully the public has the good sense not to buy the inferior article more than once. If you see an article consistently advertised, it is the surest proof I know that the article does what is claimed for it, and that it represents good value.
    Advertising does more for the material benefit of the community than any other force I can think of.
    There is one more point I feel I ought to touch on. Recently I heard a well-known television personality declare that he was against advertising because it persuades rather that informs. He was drawing excessively fine distinctions. Of course advertising seeks to persuade.
    If its message were confined merely to information-and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the colour of a shirt is subtly persuasive-advertising would be so boring that no one would pay any attention. But perhaps that is what the well-known television personality wants.
 
51. By the first sentence of the passage the author means that ______________.
    [A] he is fairly familiar with the cost of advertising
    [B] everybody knows well that advertising is money consuming
    [C] advertising costs money like everything else
    [D] it is worthwile to spend money on advertising
52. In the passage, which of the following is NOT included in the advantages of advertising?
    [A] Securing greater fame.
    [B] Providing more jobs.
    [C] Enhancing living standards.
    [D] Reducing newspaper cost.
53. The author deems that the well-known TV personality is _____________.
    [A] very precise in passing his judgement on advertising
    [B] interested in nothing but the buyers' attention
    [C] correct in telling the difference between persuasion and information
    [D] obviously partial in his views on advertising
54. In the author's opinion. ______________.
    [A] advertising can seldom bring material benefit to man by providing information
    [B] advertising informs people of new ideas rather than wins them over
    [C] there is nothing wrong with advertising in persuading the buyer
    [D] the buyer is not interested in getting information from an advertisement
 
Passage 2
 
    There are two basic ways to see growth; one as a product, the other as a process. People have generally viewed personal growth as an external result or product that can easily be indentified and measured. The worker who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language-all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for their efforts.
    By contrast, the process of personal growth is much more difficult to determine, since by definition it is a journey and not the specific signposts or landmarks along the way. The process is not the road itself, but rather the attitudes and feelings people have, their caution or courage, as they encounter new experiences and unexpected obstacles. In this process, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, new ideas to try, new challenges to accept.
    In other to grow, to travel new roads, people need to have a willingness to take risks, to confront the unknown, and to accept the possibility that they may "fail" at first. How we see ourselves as we try a new way of being is essential to our ability to grow. Do we perceive ourselves as quick and curious? If so, then we tend to take more chances and be more open to unfamiliar experiences. Do we think we're shy and indecisive? Then our sense of timidity can cause us to hesitate, to move slowly, and not to take a step until we know the ground is safe. Do we think we're slow to adapt to change or that we're not smart enough to cope with a new challenge? Then we are likely to take a more passive role or not try at all.
    These feelings of insecurity and self-doubt are both unavoidable and necessary if we are to change and grow. If we do not confront and overcome these internal fears and doubts, if we protect ourselves too much, then we cease to grow. We become trapped inside a shell of our own making.
 
55. A person is generally believed to achieve personal growth when _______________.
    [A] he has given up his smoking habit
    [B] he has made great efforts in his work
    [C] he is keen on learning anything new
    [D] he has tried to determine where he is on his journey
56. In the author's eyes, one who views personal growth as a process would ____________.
    [A] succeed in climbing up the social ladder
    [B] judge his ability to grow from his own achievements
    [C] face difficulties and take up challenges
    [D] aim high and reach his goal each time
57. When the author says "a new way of being" (line 2~3, Para. 3) he is referring to __________.
    [A] a new approach to experiencing the world
    [B] a new way of taking risks
    [C] a new method of perceiving ourselves
    [D] a new system of adaptation to change
58. For personal growth, the author advocates all of the following except ______________.
    [A] curiosity about more chances
    [B] promptness in self-adaptation
    [C] open-mindedness to new experiences
    [D] avoidance of internal fears and doubts
 
Passage 3
 
    In such a changing, complex society formerly simple solutions to informational needs become complicated. Many of life's problems which were solved by asking family members, friends or colleagues are beyond the capability of the extended family to resolve. Where to turn for expert information and how to determine which expert advice to accept are questions facing many people today.
    In addition to this, there is the growing mobility of people since World War Ⅱ. As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable. The almost unconscious flow of information about the simplest aspects of living can be cut off. Thus, things once learned subconsciously through the casual communications of the extended family must be consciously learned.
    Adding to societal changes today is an enormous stockpile of information. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time-consuming and sometimes even overwhelming.
    Coupled with the growing quantity of information is the development of technologies which enable the storage and delivery of more information with greater speed to more locations than has ever been possible before. Computer technology makes it possible to store vast amounts of data in machine-readable files, and to program computers to locate specific information. Telecommunications developments enable the sending of messages via television, radio, and very shortly, electronic mail to bombard people with multitudes of messages. Satellites have extended the power of communications to report events at the instant of occurrence. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can the settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site. Technology has facilitated the sharing of information and the storage and delivery of information, thus making more information available to more people.
    In this world of change and complexity, the need for information is of greatest importance . Those people who have accurate, reliable up-to-date information to solve the day-to-day problems, the critical problems of their business, social and family life, will survive and succeed, "Knowledge is power" may well be the truest saying and access to information may be the most critical requirement of all people.
 
59. The word "it" (Line 4, Para. 2) most probably refers to _____________.
    [A] the lack of stable communities
    [B] the breakdown of informal information channels
    [C] the increased mobility of families
    [D] the growing number of people moving from place to place
60. The main problem may encounter today arises from the fact that ______________.
    [A] they have to learn new things consciously
    [B] they lack the confidence of securing reliable and trustworthy information
    [C] they have difficulty obtaining the needed information readily
    [D] they can hardly carry out casual communications with an extended family
61. From the passage we can infer that ______________.
    [A] electronic mail will soon play a dominant role in transmitting messages
    [B] it will become more difficult for people to keep secrets in an information era
    [C] people will spend less time holding meetings or conferences
    [D] events will be reported on the spot mainly through satellites
62. We can learn from the last paragraph that ___________________.
    [A] it is necessary to obtain as much knowledge as possible
    [B] people should make the best use of the information accessible
    [C] we should realize the importance of accumulating information
    [D] it is of vital importance to acquire needed information efficiently
 
Passage 4
 
    Personality is to a large extent inherent--A-type-parents usually bring about A-type offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.
    One place where children soak up A-characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the 'win at all costs' moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two- layer system, in which competitive A- types seem in some way better than their B type fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences: remember that Pheidippides, the first marathon runner, dropped dead seconds after saying: "Rejoice, we conquer!"
    By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to concentrate on those things they to well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.
    Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all A youngsters change into B's. The world needs types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child's personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.
    If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistake to choose our doctors exclusively from A- type stock. B's are important and should be encouraged.
 
63. According to the passage, A-type individuals are usually ____________.
    [A] impatient          [B] considerate     [C] aggressive     [D] agreeable
64. The author is strongly opposed to the practice of examinations at schools because _________.
    [A] the pressure is too great on the students
    [B] some students are bound to fail
    [C] failure rates are too high
    [D] the results of examinations are doubtful
65. The selection of medical professionals is currently based on _____________.
    [A] candidates' sensitivity           [B] academic achievements
    [C] competitive spirit              [D] surer values
66. From the passage we can draw the conclusion that __________________.
    [A] the personality of a child is well established at birth
    [B] family influence dominates the shaping of one's characteristics
    [C] the development of one's personality is due to multiple factors
    [D] B-type characteristics can find no place in a competitive society
 
Passage 5
 
    That experiences influence subsequent behaviour is evidence of an obvious but nevertheless remarkable activity called remembering. Learning could not occur without the function popularly named memory. Constant practice has such as effect on memory as to lead to skilful performance on the piano, to recitation of a poem, and even to reading and understanding these words. So-called intelligent behaviour demands memory, remembering being a primary primary requirement for reasoning. The ability to solve any problem or even to recognize that a problem exists depends on memory. Typically, the decision to cross a street is based on remembering many earlier experiences.
    Practice (or review) tends to build and maintain memory for a task or for any learned material. Over a period of no practice what has been learned tends to be forgotten; and the adaptive consequences may not seem obvious. Yet, dramatic instances of sudden forgetting can be seen to be adaptive. In this sense, the ability to forget can be interpreted to have survived through a process of natural selection in animals. Indeed, when one's memory of emotionally painful experience lead to serious anxiety, forgetting may produce relief. Nevertheless, an evolutionary interpretation might make it difficult to understand how the commonly gradual process of forgetting survived natural selection.
    In thinking about the evolution of memory together with all its possible aspects, it is helpful to consider what would happen if memories failed to fade. Forgetting clearly aids orientation in time, since old memories weaken and the new tend to stand out, providing clues for inferring duration. Without forgetting, adaptive ability would suffer, for example, learned behaviour that might have been correct a decade ago may no longer be. Cases are recorded of people who (by ordinary standards) forgot so little that their everyday activities were full of confusion. This forgetting seems to serve that survival of the individual and the species.
    Another line of thought assumes a memory storage system of limited capacity that provides adaptive flexibility specifically through forgetting. In this view, continual adjustments are made between learning or memory storage (input) and forgetting (output). Indeed, there is evidence that the rate at which individuals forget is directly related to how much they have learned. Such data offers gross support of contemporary models of memory that assume an input-output balance.
 
67. From the evolutionary point of view, ______________.
    [A] forgetting for lack of practice tends to be obviously inadaptive
    [B] if a person gets very forgetful all of a sudden he must be very adaptive
    [C] the gradual process of forgetting is an indication of an individual's adaptability
    [D] sudden forgetting may bring about adaptive consequences
68. According to the passage, if a person never forgets, ___________.
    [A] he would survive best
    [B] he would have a lot of trouble
    [C] his ability to learn would be enhanced
    [D] the evolution of memory would stop
69. From the last paragraph we know that ______________.
    [A] forgetfulness is a response to learning
    [B] the memory storage system is an exactly balanced input-output system
    [C] memory is a compensation for forgetting
    [D] the capacity of a memory storage system is limited because forgetting occurs
70. In this article, the author tries to interpret the function of _______________.
    [A] remembering                [B] forgetting
    [C] adapting                    [D] experiencing
 
Unit 3
 
Passage 1
 
    Tight-lipped alders used to say, "It's not what you want in this world, but what you get."
    Psychology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.
    You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list, decide which food to cook first, and such planning is an essential for any type of meal to be served.
    Likewise, if you want to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.
    This account of yourself is actually a sketch of your working life and should include education, experience and references. Such an account is valuable. It can be referred to in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal interviews. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.
    When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something tangible to sell. Then you are ready to hunt for a job. Get all the possible information about your could-be job. Make inquiries as to the details regarding the job and the firm. Keep your eyes and ears open, and use your own judgement. Spend a certain amount of time each day seeking the employment you wish for, and keep in mind: Securing a job is your job now.
 
1. What do the elders mean when they say, "It's not what you want is this world, but what you get."?
    (A)You'll certainly get what you want.
    (B)It's no use dreaming.
    (C)You should be dissatified with what you have.
    (D)It's essential to set a goal for yourself
2. A blueprint made before inviting a friend to dinner is used in this passage as ____________.
    (A)an illustration of how to write an application for a job
    (B)an indication how to secure a good job
    (C)a guideline for job description
    (D)a principle for job evaluation
3. According to the passage, one must write an account of himself before starting to find a job because _____________.
    (A)that is the first step to please the employer
    (B)the is the requirement of the employer
    (C)it enables him to know when to sell his services
    (D)it forces him to become clearly aware of himself
4. When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something ____________.
    (A)definite to offer              (B)imaginary to provide
    (C)practical to supply            (D)desirable to present
 
Passage 2
 
    With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation's news coverage, as well as listen to it. And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to tow BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio station. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, new and current affairs, education , religion, parliamentary coverage, children's programmes and films for an annual licence fee of £83 per household.
    It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years——yet the BBC's future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organisation, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain.
    The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC--including ordinary listeners and viewers——to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBCs royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organisation as it is, or to make changes.
    Defenders of the Corporation——of whom there are many——are fond of quoting the American slogan. "If it ain't broke, don't fix it." The BBC "ain't broke", they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word "broke", meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?
    Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels——ITV and Channel 4——were required by the Thatcher Government's Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels——funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers' subscriptions——which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.
 
5. The world famous BBC now faces ____________.
    (A)the problem of new coverage    (B)an uncertain prospect
    (C)inquiries by the general public   (D)shrinkage of audience
6. In the passage, which of the fol, lowing about the BBC is not mentioned as the key issue?
    (A)Extension of its TV service to Far East.
    (B)Programmes as the subject of a nation-wide debate.
    (C)Potentials for further international co-operations.
    (D)Its existence as a broadcasting organisation.
7. The BBC's "royal charter" (Line 4, Paragraph 3) stands for ___________.
    (A)the financial support from the royal family
    (B)the privileges granted by the Queen
    (C)a contract with the Queen
    (D)a unique relationship with the royal family
8. The foremost reason why the BBC has to readjust itself is no other than _____________.
    (A)the emergence of commercial TV channels
    (B)the enforcement of Broadcasting Act by the government
    (C)the urgent necessity to reduce costs and jobs
    (D)the challenge of new satellite channels
 
Passage 3
 
    In the last half of the nineteenth century "capital" and "labour" were enlarging and perfecting their rival organisations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and state-owned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting, trams and other services to the taxpayers.
    The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of  the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the world's movement towards industrialisation. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large "comfortable" classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders' meeting to dictate t, heir orders to the management. On the other hand "Shareholding" meant leisure and freedom which was used by many of the later Victorians for the highest purpose of a great civilisation.
    The "shareholders" as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation  with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. Indeed the mere size of operations and the numbers of workmen involved rendered such personal relations impossible. Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organisation of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled to workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other's strength and understand the value of fair negotiation.
 
9.It's true of the old family firms that        .
  (A) they were spoiled by the younger generations
  (B) they failed for lack of individual initiative
  (C) they lacked efficiency compared with modern companies
  (D) they could supply adequate services to the taxpayers
10.The growth of limited liability companies resulted in        .
  (A) the separation of capital from management
  (B) the ownership of capital by managers
  (C) the emergence of capital and labour as two classes
  (D) the participation of shareholders in municipal business
11.According of the passage, all of the following are true except that        .
  (A) the shareholders were unaware of the needs of the workers
  (B) the old firm owners had a better understanding of their workers
  (C) the limited liability companies too large to run smoothly
  (D) the trade unions seemed to play a positive role
12.The author is most critical of        .
  (A) family firm owners  (B) landowners  (C) managers  (D) shareholders
 
Passage 4
 
    What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in early America——breakthroughs such as the telegraph, the steamboat and the weaving machine?
    Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country's excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors;and above all the American genius for nonverbal, "spatial" thinking about things technological.
    Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.
   Acute foreign observers related American adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, "With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman."
    A further stimulus to invention came from the "premium" system, which preceded our patent system and for years ran parallel with it .This approach, originated abroad, offered inventors medals, cash prizes and other incentives.
    In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs and at the industrial fairs in major cities. Americans flocked to these fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance.
    Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, "A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process … The designer and the inventor … are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist."
    This nonverbal "spatial" thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing. Robert Fulton once wrote, "The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc., like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea."
    When all these shaping forces——schools, open attitudes, the premium system, a genius for spatial thinking——interacted with one another on the rich. U.S. mainland, they produced that American characteristic, emulation. Today that word implies mere imitation. But in earlier times it meant a friendly but competitive striving for fame and excellence.
 
13.According to the author, the great outburst of major inventions in early America was in a large part due to         .
  (A) elementary shools              (B) enthusiastic workers
  (C) the attractive premium system    (D) a special way of thinking
14.It is implied that adaptiveness and inventiveness of the early American mechanics        .
  (A) benefited a lot from their mathematical knowledge
  (B) shed light on disciplined school management
  (C) was brought about by privileged home training
  (D) owed a lot to the technological developement
15.A technologist can be compared to an artist because        .
  (A) they are both winners of awards
  (B) they are both experts in spatial thinking
  (C) they both abandon verbal description
  (D) they both use various instruments
16.The best title for this passage might be        .
  (A) Inventive Mind    (B) Effective Schooling
  (C) Ways of Thinking  (D) Outpouring of Inventions
 
Passage 5
 
    Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher's pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. "Scientific" creationism, which is being pushed by some for "equal time" in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science, Virtually scientists and the majority of nonfunda-mentalist religious leaders have come to regard "scientific" creationism as bad science and bad religion.
    The first four chapters of Kitcher's book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At appropriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating He describes their programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior.
    Kitcher is philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments. The nonspecialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: "This book stands for reason itself." And so it does——and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
 
17."Creationism" in the passage refers to        .
  (A) evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe
  (B) a notion of the creation of religion
  (C) the scientific explanation of the earth formation
  (D) the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe
18.Kitcher's book is intended to        .
  (A) recommend the views of the evolutionists
  (B) expose the true features of creationists
  (C) curse bitterly at this opponents
  (D) launch a surprise attack on creationists
19.From the passage we can infer that        .
  (A) reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate
  (B) creationists do not base their argument on reasoning
  (C) evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialists
  (D) creationism is supported by scientific findings
20.This passage appears to be a digest of         .
  (A) a book review       (B) a scientific paper
  (C) a magazine feature   (D) a newspaper editorial
 
Unit 4
 
Passage 1
 
    It was 3:45 in the morning when the vote was finally taken. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. The measure passed by the convincing vote of 15 to 10. Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada. He sent it on via the group's on-line service, Death NET. Says Hofsess: "We posted bulletins all day long, because of course this isn't just something that happened in Australia. It's world history."
    The full import may take a while to sink in .The NT Rights of the Terminally Ill law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia——where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part——other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the US and Canada, where the right-to-die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.
    Under the new Northern Territory law, an adult patient can request death——probably by a deadly injection or pill——to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed as terminally ill by two doctors. After a "cooling off" period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54-year-old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally Ill law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. "I'm not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how I'd go, because I've watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks," he says.
 
1.From the second paragraph we learn that        .
  [A] the objection to euthanasia is slow to come in other countries
  [B] physicians and citizens share the same view on euthanasia
  [C] changing technology is chiefly responsible for the hasty passage of the law
  [D] it takes time to realize the significance of the law's passage
2.When the author says that observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling, he means        .
  [A] observers are taking a wait-and-see attitude towards the future of euthanasia
  [B] similar bills are likely to be passed in the US, Canada and other countries
  [C] observers are waiting to see the result of the game of dominoes
  [D] the effect-taking process of the passed bill may finally come to a stop
3.When Lloyd Nickson dies, he will        .
  [A] face his death with calm characteristic of euthanasia
  [B] experience the suffering of a lung cancer patient
  [C] have an intense fear of terrible suffering
  [D] undergo a cooling off period of seven days
4.The author's attitude towards euthanasia seems to be that of        .
  [A] opposition    [B] suspicion    [C] approval    [D] indifference
 
Passage 2
 
    A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous, and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.
    For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence. Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.
    The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality. Some-one traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. it was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didn't take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation.
    Today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. "I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner——amazing." Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.
    As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to "translate" cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word "friend", the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitor's language and culture. It takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many Americans value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.
 
5.In the eyes of visitors from the outside world         .
  [A] rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US
  [B] small-minded officials deserve a serious comment
  [C] Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors
  [D] most Americans are ready to offer help
6.It could be inferred from the last paragraph that         .
  [A] culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship
  [B] courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated
  [C] various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends
  [D] social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions
7.Families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers          .
  [A] to improve their hard life
  [B] in view of their long-distance travel
  [C] to and some flavor to their own daily life
  [D] out of a charitable impulse
8.The tradition of hospitality to strangers          .
  [A] tends to be superficial and artificial
  [B] is generally well kept up in the United States
  [C] is always understood properly
  [D] has something to do with the busy tourist trails
 
Passage 3
 
    Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts. They don't realize that familiar substances such as alcohol and tobacco are also drugs. This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists. The phrase "substance abuse" is often used instead of "drug abuse" to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.
    We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves. When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. Repeated use of substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.
    Drugs (substances) that affect central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances. Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogen. Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down. Hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception. distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing hallucinations. These are the substances often called psychedelic (from the Greek word meaning "mind-manifesting") because they seemed to radically alter one's state of consciousness.
 
9."Substances abuse" (Line 4, Paragraph 1) is preferable to "drug abuse" in that         .
  [A] substances can alter our bodily or mental functioning if illegally used
  [B] "drug abuse" is only related to a limited number of drug takers
  [C] alcohol and tobacco are as fatal as heroin and cocaine
  [D] many substances other than heroin or cocaine can also be poisonous
10.The word "pervasive" (Line 1, Paragraph 2) might mean         .
  [A] widespread    [B] overwhelming    [C] piercing    [D] fashionable
11.Physical dependence on certain substances results from          .
  [A] uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time.
  [B] exclusive use of them for social purposes
  [C] quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases
  [D] careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms
12.From the last paragraph we can infer that          .
  [A] stimulants function positively on the mind
  [B] hallucinogens are in themselves harmful to health
  [C] depressants are the worst type of psychoactive substances
  [D] the three types of psychoactive substances are commonly used in groups
 
Passage 4
 
  No company likes to be told it is contributing to the moral decline of nation. "Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?" Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. "You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?" At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul-searching that has involved the company ever since the company was born in 1990. It's a self-examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.
    At the core of this debate is chairman Gerald Levin, 56, who took over for the late Steve Ross in 1992. On the financial front, Levin is under pressure to raise the stock price and reduce the company's mountainous debt, which will increase to $ 17.3 billion after two new cable deals close. He has promised to sell of some of the property and restructure the company, but investors are waiting impatiently.
    The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the company's rap music on the grounds of expression. In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice-T's violent rap song Cop Killer, Levin described rap as lawful expression of street culture, which deserves an outlet. "The test of any democratic society," he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, "lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be. We won't retreat in the face of any threats."
    Levin would not comment on the debate last week, but there were signs that the chairman was backing off his hard-line stand, at least to some extent. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month's stockholders' meeting. Levin asserted that "music is not the cause of society's ills" and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students. But he talked as well about the "balanced struggle" between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music.
    The 15-member Time Warner board is generally supportive of Levin and his corporate strategy. But insiders say several of them have shown their concerns in this matter. "Some of us have known for many, many years that the freedoms under the First Amendment are not totally unlimited," says Luce. "I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this."
 
13.Senator Robert Dole criticized Time Warner for         .
  [A] its raising of the corporate stock price.
  [B] its self-examination of soul.
  [C] its neglect of social responsibility.
  [D] its emphasis on creative freedom..
14.According to the passage, which of the following if TRUE?        .
  [A] Luce is a spokesman of Time Warner.
  [B] Gerald Levin is liable to compromise.
  [C] Time Warner is united as one in the face of the debate.
  [D] Steve Ross is no longer alive.
15.In face of the recent attacks on the company, the chairman         .
  [A] stuck to a strong stand to defend freedom of expression
  [B] softened his tone and adopted some new policy
  [C] changed his attitude and yielded to objection
  [D] received more support from the 15-member board
16.The best title for this passage could be         .
  [A] A Company under Fire
  [B] A Debate on Moral Decline
  [C] A Lawful Outlet of Street Culture
  [D] A Form of Creative Freedom
 
Passage 5
 
    Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as "steering the economy to a soft landing" of "a touch on the brakes", makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth. The link between interest rates and inflation is uncertain. And there are long, variable lags before policy changes have any effect on the economy. Hence the analogy that likens the conduct of monetary policy to driving a car with a blackened windscreen, a cracked rearview mirror and a faulty steering wheel.
    Given all these disadvantages, central bankers seem to have had much to boast about of late. Average inflation in the big seven industrial economies fell to a mere 2.3% last year. close to its lowest level in 30 years, before rising slightly to 2.5% this July. This is a long way below the double-digit rates which many countries experienced in the 1970s and early 1980s.
    It is also less than most forecasters had predicted. In late 1994 the panel of economists which The Economist polls each month said that America's inflation rate would average 3.5% in 1995. In fact, it fell to 2.6% in August, and is expected to average only about 3% for the year as a whole. In Britain and Japan inflation is runing half a percentage point below the rate predicted at the end of last year. This is no flash in the pan; over the past couple of years, inflation has been consistantly lower than expected in Britain and America.
    Economists have been particularly surprised by favourable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America's, have little productive slack. America's capacity utilisation, for example, hit historically high levels earlier this year, and its jobless rate ( 5.6 in August ) has fallen below most estimates of the natural rate of unemployment——the rate below which inflation has taken off on the past.
    Why has inflation proved so mild? The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.
 
17. From the passage we learn that _______.
   [A] there is a definite relationship between inflation and interest rates
   [B] economy will always follow certain models
   [C] the economic situation is better than expected
   [D] economists had foreseen the present economic situation
18. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?
   [A] Making monetary policies is comparable to driving a car.
   [B] An extremely low jobless rate will lead to inflation.
   [C] A high unemployment rate will result from inflation.
   [D] Interest rates have an immediate effect on the economy.
19. The sentence "This is no flash in the pan" (Line 5, Paragraph 3) means that _________.
   [A] the low inflation rate will last for some time
   [B] the inflation rate will soon rise
   [C] the inflation will disappear quickly
   [D] there is no inflation at present
20. The passage shows that the author is __________ the present situation.
   [A] critical of    [B] puzzled by    [C] disappointed at    [D] amazed at
 
Unit 5
 
Passage 1
 
    Few creations of big technology capture the imagination like giant dams. Perhaps it is humankind's long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascination. But to be fascinated is also, sometimes, to be blind. Several giant dam projects threaten to do more harm than good.
    The lesson from dams is that big is not always beautiful. It doesn't help that building a big, powerful dam has become a symbol of achievement for nations and people striving to assert themselves. Egypt's leadership in the Arab world was cemented by the Aswan High Dam. Turkey's bid for First World status includes the giant Ataturk Dam.
    But big dams tend not to work as intended. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left­——all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.
    And yet, the myth of controlling the waters persists, This week, in the heart of civillized Europe, Slovaks and Hungarians stopped just short of sending in the troops in their contention over a dam on the Danube, The huge complex will probably have all the usual problems of big dams. But Slovakia is bidding for independence from the Czechs, and now needs a dam to prove itself.
    Meanwhile, in India, the World Bank has given the go—ahead to the even more wrong—headed Narmada Dam. And the bank has done this even though its advisors say the dam will cause hardship for the powerless and environmental destruction. The benefits are for the powerful, but they are far from guaranteed.
    Proper, scientific study of the impacts of dams and of the cost and benefits of controlling water can help to resolve these conflicts. Hydroelectric power and flood control and irrigation are possible without building monster dams. But when you are dealing with myths, it is hard to be either proper, or scientific. It is time that the world learned the lessons of Aswan. You don't need a dam to be saved.
1. The third sentence of paragraph 1 implies that _______.
   [A] people would be happy if they shut their eyes to reality
   [B] the blind could be happier than the sighted
   [C] over—excited people tend to neglect vital things
   [D] fascination makes people lose their eyesight
2. In paragraph 5, "the powerless" probably refers to _________.
   [A] areas short of electricity
   [B] dams without power stations
   [C] poor counrtries around India
   [D] common people in the Narmada Dam area
3. What is the myth concerning giant dams?
   [A] They bring in more fertile soil.
   [B] They help defend the country.
   [C] They strengthen international ties.
   [D] They have universal control of the waters.
4. What the author tries to suggest may best be interpreted as ________.
   [A] "It's no use crying over spilt milk"
   [B] "More haste, less speed"
   [C] "Look before you leap"
   [D] "He who laughs last laughs best"
 
Passage 2
 
    Well, no gain without pain, they say. But what about pain without gain? Everywhere you go in America, you hear tales of corporate revival. What is harder to establish is whether the productivity revolution that businessmen assume they are presiding over is for real.
    The official statistics are mildly discouraging. They show that, if you lump manufacturing and services together, productivity has grown on average by 1.2% since 1987. That is somewhat faster than the average during the previous decade. And since 1991, productivity has increased by about 2% a year, which is more than twice the 1978—87 average. The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend. There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a "disjunction" between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics.
    Some of this can be easily explained. New ways of organizing the workplace—all that re—engineering and downsizing—are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training. Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much.
    Two other explanations are more speculative. First, some of the business restructuring of recent years may have been ineptly done. Second, even if it was well done, it may have spread much less widely than people suppose.
    Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic and former chief executive of Au Bong Pain, a rapidly growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much "re—engineering" has been crude. In many cases, he believes, the loss of revenue has been greater than the reductions in cost. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re—engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficent thought to long—term profitability. BBDO's Al Rosenshine is blunter. He dismisses a lot of the work of re—engineering consultants as mere rubbish—— "the worst sort of ambulance—chasing."
 
5. According to the author, the American economic situation is ________.
   [A] not as good as it seems             [B] at its turning point
   [C] much better than it seems           [D] near to complete recovery
6. The official statistics on productivity growth ________.
   [A] exclude the usual rebound in a business cycle
   [B] fall short of businessmen's anticipation
   [C] meet the expectation of business people
   [D] fail to reflect the true state of economy
7. The author raises the question "what about pain without gain?" because _________.
   [A] he questions the truth of "no gain without pain"
   [B] he does not think the productivity revolution works
   [C] he wonders if the official statistics are misleading
   [D] he has conclusive evidence for the revival of businesses
8. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?
   [A] Radical reforms are essential for the increase of productivity.
   [B] New ways of organizing workplaces may help to increase productivity.
   [C] The reduction of costs is not a sure way to gain long-term profitability.
   [D] The consultants are a bunch of good-for-nothings.
 
Passage 3
 
    Science has long had an uneasy relationship with other aspects of culture. Think of Gallileo's 17th-century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church or poet William Blake's harsh remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton. The schism between science and the humanities has, if anything, deepened in this century.
    Until recently, the scientific community was so powerful that it could afford to ignore its critics­——but no longer. As funding for science has declined, scientists have attacked "antiscience" in several books, notably Higher Superstition, by Paul R. Gross, a biologist at the University of Virginia, and Norman Levitt, a mathematician at Rutgers University; and The Demon-Haunted World, by Carl Sagan of Cornell University.
    Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as "The Flight from Science and Reason," held in New York City in 1995, and "Science in the Age of (Mis) information," which assembled last June near Buffalo.
    Antiscience clearly means different things to different people. Gross and Levitt find fault primarily with sociologists, philosophers and other academics who have questioned science's objectivity. Sagan is more concerned with those who believe in ghosts, creationism and other phenomena that contradict the scientific worldview.
    A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.
    Few would dispute that the term applies to the Unabomber, whose manifesto, published in 1995, scorns science and longs for return to a pretechnological utopia. But surely that does not mean environmentalists concerned about uncontrolled industrial growth are antiscience, as an essay in US News & World Report last May seemed to suggest.
    The environmentalists, inevitably, respond to such critics. The true enemies of science, argues Paul Ehrlich of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental studies, are those who question the evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth.
Indeed, some observers fear that the antiscience epithet is in danger of becoming meaningless. "The term 'antiscience' can lump together too many, quite different things," notes Harvard University philosopher Gerald Holton in his 1993 work science and Anti-Science, "They have in common only one thing that they tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more enlightened."
 
9. The word "schism" (Line 3, Paragraph 1) in the context probably means __________.
   [A] confrontation                   [B] dissatisfaction
   [C] separation                      [D] contempt
10. Paragraphs 2 and 3 are written to __________.
   [A] discuss the cause of the decline of science's power
   [B] show the author's symphathy with scientists
   [C] explain the way in which science develops
   [D] exemplify the division of science and the humanities
11. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
   [A] Environmentalists were blamed for antiscience in an essay.
   [B] Politicians are not subject to the labeling of antiscience.
   [C] The "more enlightened" tend to tag others as antiscience.
   [D] Tagging environmentalis, ts as "antiscience" is justifiable
12. The author's attitude toward the issue of "science vs. antiscience" is _________.
   [A] impartial    [B] subjective    [C] biased    [D] puzzling
 
Passage 4
 
    Emerging from the 1980 census is the picture of a nation developing more and more regional competition, as population growth in the Northeast and Midwest reaches a near standstill.
    This development——and its strong implications for US politics and economy in years ahead——has enthroned the South as America's most densely populated region for the first time in the history of the nation's head counting.
    Altogether, the US population rose in the 1970s by 23.2 million people——numerically the third-largest growth ever recorded in a single decade. Even so that gain adds up to only 11.4 percent, lowest in American annual records except for the Depression years.
    Americans have been migrating south and west in larger numbers since World War II, and the pattern still prevails.
    Three sun-belt states——Florida, Texas and California——together had nearly 10 million more people in 1980 than a decade earlier. Among large cities, San Diego moved from 14th to 8th and San Antonio form 15th to 10th——with Cleveland and Washington. DC, dropping out of the top 10.
    Not all that shift can be attributed to the movement out of the snow belt, census officials say. Nonstop waves of immigrants played a role, too——and so did bigger crops of babies as yesterday's "baby boom" generation reached its child-bearing year.
    Moreover, dempographers see the continuing shift south and west as joined by a related but newer phenomenon: More and more, Americans apparently are looking not just for places with more jobs but with fewer people, too Some instances——
    ● Regionally, the Rocky Mountain states reported the most rapid growth rate——37.1 percent since 1970 in a vast area with only 5 percent of the US population.
    ● Among states, Nevada and Arizona grew fastest of all: 63.5 and 53.1 percent respectively. Except for Florida and Texas, the top 10 in rate of growth is composed of Western states with 7.5 million people——about 9 per square mile.
    The flight from overcrowdedness affects the migration from snow belt to more bearable climates.
    Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than in the Far West. There, California added 3.7 million to its population in the 1970s, more than any other state.
    In that decade, however, large numbers also migrated from California, mostly to other parts of the West. Often they chose——and still are choosing——somewhat colder climates such as Oregon, Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog, crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden State.
    As a result, California's growth rate dropped during the 1970s, to 18.5 percent——little more than two thirds the 1960s' growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states.
 
13. Discerned from the perplexing picture of population growth the 1980 census provided, America in 1970s _________.
   [A] enjoyed the lowest net growth of population in history
   [B] witnessed a southwestern shift of population
   [C] underwent an unparalleled period of population growth
   [D] brought to a standstill its pattern of migration since World War II
14. The census distinguished itself from previous studies on population movement in that ______.
   [A] it stresses the climatic influence on population distribution
   [B] it highlights the contribution of continuous waves of immigrants
   [C] it reveals the Americans' new pursuit of spacious living
   [D] it elaborates the delayed effects of yesterday's "baby boom"
15. We can see from the available statistics that _________.
   [A] California was once the most thinly populated area in the whole US
   [B] the top 10 states in growth rate of population were all located in the West
   [C] cities with better climates benefited unanimously from migration
   [D] Arizona ranked second of all states in its growth rate of population
16. The word "demographers" (Line 1, Paragraph 7) most probably means _________.
   [A] people in favor of the trend of democracy
   [B] advocates of migration between states
   [C] scientists engaged in the study of population
   [D] conservatives clinging to old patterns of life
 
Passage 5
 
    Scattered around the globe are more than 100 small regions of isolated volcanic activity known to geologists as hot spots. Unlike most of the world's volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth's surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate. Most of the hot spots move only slowly, and in some cases the movement of the plates past them has left trails of dead volcanoes. The hot spots and their trails are milestones that mark the passage of the plates.
    That the plates are moving is not beyond dispute. Africa and South America, for example, are moving away from each other as new material is injected into the, sea floor between them. The complementary coastlines and certain geological features that seem to span the ocean are reminders of where the two continents were once joined. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of one plate with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth's interior. It is not posible  to determine whether both continents are moving in opposite directions or whether one continent is stationary and the other is drifting away from it. Hot spots, anchored in the deeper layers of the earth, provide the measuring instruments needed to resolve the question. From an analysis of the hot-spot population it appears that the African plate is stationary and that it has not moved during the past 30 million years.
    The significance of hot spots is not confined to their role as a frame of reference. It now appears that they also have an important influence on the geophysical processes that propel the plates across the globe. When a continental plate come to rest over a hot spot, the material rising from deeper layer creates a broad dome. As the dome grows, it develops seed fissures (cracks); in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean. Thus just as earlier theories have explained the mobility of the continents, so hot spots may explain their mutability (inconstancy).
 
17. The author believes that ________.
   [A] the motion of the plates corresponds to that of the earth's interior
   [B] the geological theory about drifting plates has been proved to be true
   [C] the hot spots and the plates move slowly in opposite directions
   [D] the movement of hot spots proves the continents are moving apart
18. That Africa and South America were once joined can be deduced from the fact that ________.
   [A] the two continents are still moving in opposite directions
   [B] they have been found to share certain geological features
   [C] the African plates has been stable for 30 million years
   [D] over 100 hot spots are scattered all around the globe
19. The hot-spot theory may prove useful in explaining _________.
   [A] the structure of the African plates
   [B] the revival of dead volcanoes
   [C] the mobility of the continents
   [D] the formation of new oceans
20. The passage is mainly about _________.
   [A] the features of volcanic activities
   [B] the importance of the theory about drifting plates
   [C] the significance of hot spots in geophysical studies
   [D] the process of the formation of volcanoes
 
Unit 6
 
Passage 1
 
    It's a rough world out there. Step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your doormat. Light up the stove and you could burn down the house. Luckily, if the doormat or stove failed to warn of coming disaster, a successful lawsuit might compensate you for your troubles. Or so the thinking has gone since the early 1980s, when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers' misfortunes.
    Feeling threatened, companies responded by writing ever-longer warning labels, trying to anticipate every possible accident. Today, stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn, among other things, that you might——surprised! ——fall off. The label on a child's Batman cape cautions that the toy "does not enable user to fly."
    While warnings are often appropriate and necessary——the dangers of drug interactions, for example——and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn't clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured. About 50 percent of the companies lose when injured customers take them to court.
    Now the tide appears to be turning. As personal injury claims continue as before. some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldn't have changed anything. In May, Julie Nimmons, president of Schutt Sports in Illinois, successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a game while wearing a Schutt helmet. "We're really sorry he has become paralyzed, but helmets aren't designed to prevent those kinds of injuries," says Nimmons. They jury agreed that the nature of the game, not the helmet, was the reason for the athlete's injury. At the same time, the American Law Institute——a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight——issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones. "Important information can get buried in a sea of trivialities," says a law professor at Cornell Law School who helped draft the new guidelines. If the moderate end of the legal community has its way, the information on products might actually be provided for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal liability.
1.What were things like in 1980s when accidents happened?
    [A] Customers might be relieved of their disasters through lawsuits.
    [B] Injured customers could expect protection from the legal system.
    [C] Companies would avoid being sued by providing new warnings.
    [D] Juries tended to find fault with the compensations companies promised.
2.Manufacturers as mentioned in the passage tend to _________.
    [A] satisfy customers by writing long warnings on products
    [B] become honest in describing the inadequacies of their products
    [C] make the best use of labels to avoid legal liability
    [D] feel obliged to view customers' safety as their first concern
3.The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated that _________.
    [A] some injury claims were no longer supported by law
    [B] helmets were not designed to prevent injuries
    [C] product labels would eventually be discarded
    [D] some sports games might lose popularity with athletes
4.The author's attitude towards the issue seems to be _________.
    [A] biased                  [B] indifferent
    [C] puzzling                 [D] objective
 
Passage 2
 
    In the first year or so of Web business, most of the action has revolved around efforts to tap the consumer market. More recently, as the Web proved to be more than a fashion, companies have started to buy and sell products and services with one another. Such business-to-business sales make sense because business people typically know what product they're looking for.
    Nonetheless, many companies still hesitate to use the Web because of doubts about its reliability. "Businesses need to feel they can trust the pathway between them and the supplier," says senior analyst Blane Erwin of Forrester Research. Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the company's private intranet.
    Another major shift in the model for Internet commerce concerns the technology available for marketing. Until recently, Internet marketing activities have focused on strategies to "pull" customers into sites. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to "push" information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers. Most notably, the Pointcast Network uses a screen saver to deliver a continually updated stream of news and advertisements to subscribers' computer monitors. Subscribers can customize the information they want to receive and proceed directly to a company's Web site. Companies such as Virtual Vineyards are already starting to use similar technologies to push messages to customers about special sales, product offerings, or other events. But push technology has earned the contempt of many Web users. Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. Once commercial promotion begins to fill the screen uninvited, the distinction between the Web and television fades. That's a prospect that horrifies Net purists.
    But it is hardly inevitable that companies on the Web will need to resort to push strategies to make money. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon. com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers. And the cost of computing power continues to free fall, which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop in silicon. People looking back 5 or 10 years from now may well wonder why so few companies took the online plunge.
5.We learn from the beginning of the passage that Web business________.
    [A] has been striving to expand its market
    [B] intended to follow a fanciful fashion
    [C] tried but in vain to control the market
    [D] has been booming for one year or so
6.Speaking of the online technology available for marketing, the author implies that ________.
    [A] the technology is popular with many Web users
    [B] businesses have faith in the reliability of online transactions
    [C] there is a radical change in strategy
    [D] it is accessible limitedly to established partners
7.In the view of Net purists, ________.
    [A] there should be no marketing messages in online culture
    [B] money making should be given priority to on the Web
    [C] the Web should be able to function as the television set
    [D] there should be no online commercial information without requests
8.We learn from the last paragraph that ________.
    [A] pushing information on the Web is essential to Internet commerce
    [B] interactivity, hospitality and security are important to online customers
    [C] leading companies began to take the online plunge decades ago
    [D] setting up shops in silicon is independent of the cost of computing power
 
Passage 3
 
    An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students' career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform. Very few writers on the subject have explored this distinction——indeed, contradiction——which goes to the heart of what is wrong with the campaign to put computers in the classroom.
    An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. It is not simply to raise everyone's job prospects that all children are legally required to attend school into their teens. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently assess how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself. But this was not always the case; before it was legally required for all children to attend school until a certain age, it was widely accepted that some were just not equipped by nature to pursue this kind of education. Which optimism characteristic of all industrialized countries, we came to accept that everyone is fit to be educated. Computer-education advocates forsake this optimistic notion for a pessimism that betrays their otherwise cheery outlook. Banking on the confusion between educational and vocational reasons for brining computers into schools, computer-ed advocates often emphasize the job prospects of graduates over their educational achievement.
    There are some good arguments for a technical education given the right kind of student. Many European schools introduce the concept of professional training early on in order to make sure children are properly equipped for the professions they want to join. It is, however, presumptuous to insist that there will only be so many jobs for so many scientists, so many businessmen, so many accountants. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.
    But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not. Of course, the basics of using any computer these days are very simple. It does not take a lifelong acquaintance to pick up various software programs. If one wanted to become a computer engineer, that is, of course, an entirely different story. Basic computer skills take——at the very longest——a couple of months to learn. In any case, basic computer skills are only complementary to the host of real skills that are necessary to becoming any kind of professional. It should be observed, of course, that no school, vocational or not, is helped by a confusion over its purpose.
9.The author thinks the present rush to put computers in the classroom is ________.
    [A] far-reaching                     [B] dubiously oriented
    [C] self-contradictory                 [D] radically reformatory
10.The belief that education is indispensable to all children ________.
    [A] is indicative of a pessimism is disguise
    [B] came into being along with the arrival of computers
    [C] is deeply rooted in the minds of computer-ed advocates
    [D] originated from the optimistic attitude of industrialized countries
11.It could be inferred from the passage that in the author's country the European model of professional training is _________.
    [A] dependent upon the starting age of candidates
    [B] worth trying in various social sections
    [C] of little practical value
    [D] attractive to every kind of professional
12.According to the author, basic computer skills should be ________.
    [A] included as an auxiliary course in school
    [B] highlighted in acquisition of professional qualifications
    [C] mastered through a life-long course
    [D] equally emphasized by any school, vocational or otherwise
 
Passage 4
 
    When a Scottish research team startled the world by revealing 3 months ago that it had cloned an adult sheep, President Clinton moved swiftly. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment——although no one had proposed to do so——and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning. That group——the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC)——has been working feverishly to put its wisdom on paper, and at a meeting on 17 May, members agreed on a near-final draft of their recommendations.
    NBAC will ask that Clinton's 90-day ban on federal funds for human cloning be extended indefinitely, and possibly that it be made law. But NBAC members are planning to word the recommendation narrowly to avoid new restrictions on research that involves the cloning of human DNA or cells——routine in molecular biology. The panel has not yet reached agreement on a crucial question, however, whether to recommend legislation that would make it a crime for private funding to be used for human cloning.
    In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be "morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning." Shapiro explained during the meeting that the moral doubt stems mainly from fears about the risk to the health of the child. The panel then informally accepted several general conclusions, although some details have not been settled.
    NBAC plans to call for a continued ban on federal government funding for any attempt to clone body cell nuclei to create a child. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo's life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.
    NBAC members also indicated that they will appeal to privately funded researchers and clinics not to try to clone humans by body cell nuclear transfer. But they were divided on whether to go further by calling for a federal law that would impose a complete ban on human cloning. Shapiro and most members favored an appeal for such legislation, but in a phone interview, he said this issue was still "up in the air."
13.We can learn from the first paragraph that _________.
    [A] federal funds have been used in a project to clone humans
    [B] the White House responded strongly to the news of cloning
    [C] NBAC was authorized to control the misuse of cloning technique
    [D] the White House has got the panel's recommendations on cloning
14.The panel agreed on all of the following except that ­­­­­­­­­­______________.
    [A] the ban on federal funds for human cloning should be made a law
    [B] the cloning of human DNA is not to be put under more control
    [C] it is criminal to use private funding for human cloning
    [D] it would be against ethical values to clone a human being
15.NBAC will leave the issue of embryo research undiscussed because _______.
    [A] embryo research is just a current development of cloning
    [B] the health of the child is not the main concern of embryo research
    [C] an embryo's life will not be endangered in embryo research
    [D] the issue is explicitly stated and settled in the law
16.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that _________.
    [A] some NBAC members hesitate to ban human cloning completely
    [B] a law banning human cloning is to be passed in no time
    [C] privately funded researchers will respond positively to NBAC's appeal
    [D] the issue of human cloning will soom be settled
 
Passage 5
   
    Science, in practice, depends far less on the experiments it prepares than on the preparedness of the minds of the men who watch the experiments. Sir Isaac Newton supposedly discovered gravity through the fall of an apple. Apples had been falling in many places for centuries and thousands of people had seen them fall. But Newton for years had been curious about the cause of the orbital motion of the moon and planets. What kept them in place? Why didn't they fall out of the sky? The fact that the apple fell down toward the earth and not up into the tree answered the question he had been asking himself about those larger fruits of the heavens, the moon and the planets.
    How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree? Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything. He was just wondering. His mind was ready for the unpredictable. Unpredicability is part of the essential nature of research. If you don't have unpredictable things, you don't have research. Scientists tend to forget this when writing their cut and dried reports for the technical journals, but history is filled with examples of it.
    In talking to some scientists, particularly younger ones, you might gather the impression that they find the "scientific method" a substitute for imaginative thought. I've attended research conferences where a scientist has been asked what he thinks about the advisability of continuing a certain experiment. The scientist has frowned, looked at the graphs, and said "the data are still inconclusive." "We know that," the men from the budget office have said, "but what do you HhHHddd
think? Is it worthwhile going on? What do you think we might expect?" The scientist has been shocked at having even been asked to speculate.
    What this amounts to, of course, is that the scientist has become the victim of his own writings. He has put forward unquestioned claims so consistently that he not only believes them himself, but has convinced industrial and business management that they are true. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls" among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who "work well with the team."
17.The author wants to prove with the example of Isaac Newton that ________.
    [A] inquiring minds are more important than scientific experiments
    [B] science advances when fruitful researches are conducted
    [C] scientists seldom forget the essential nature of research
    [D] unpredictability weighs less than prediction in scientific research
18.The author asserts that scientists _________.
    [A] shouldn't replace "scientific method" with imaginative thought
    [B] shouldn't neglect to speculate on unpredictable things
    [C] should write more concise reports for technical journals
    [D] should be confident about their research findings
19.It seems that some young scientists __________.
    [A] have a keen interest in prediction
    [B] often speculate on the future
    [C] think highly of creative thinking
    [D] stick to "scientific method"
20.The author implies that the results of scientific research _________.
    [A] may not be as profitable as they are expected
    [B] can be measured in dollars and cents
    [C] rely on conformity to a standard pattern
    [D] are mostly underestimated by management
 
Unit 7
 
Passage 1
 
    A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.
    It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid-1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith. (Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July.) Foreign-made cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market. America's machine-tool industry was on the ropes. For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had invented and which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.
    All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.
    How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride. "American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quick-witted," according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. "It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity," says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a think-tank in Washington, DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as "a golden age of business management in the United States."
1.The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War II because _________.
    [A] it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal
    [B] its domestic market was eight times larger than before
    [C] the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors
    [D] the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy
2.The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American ________.
    [A] TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market
    [B] semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises
    [C] machine-tool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions
    [D] auto industry had lost part of its domestic market
3.What can be inferred from the passage?       .
    [A] It is human nature to shift between self-doubt and blind pride.
    [B] Intense competition may contribute to economic progress.
    [C] The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.
    [D] A long history of success may pave the way for further development.
4.The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the _________.
    [A] turning of the business cycle
    [B] restructuring of industry
    [C] improved business management
    [D] success in education
 
Passage 2
 
    Being a man has always been dangerous. There are about 105 males born for every 100 females, but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70-year-olds there are twice as many women as men. But the great universal of male mortality is being changed. Now, boy babies survive almost as well as girls do. This means that, for the first time, there will be an excess of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. More important, another chance for natural selection has been removed. Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby (particularly a boy baby) surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram too light or too heavy meant almost certain death. Today it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due to genes, one more agent of evolution has gone.
There is another way to commit evolutionary suicide; stay alive, but have fewer children. Few people are as fertile as in the past. Except in some religious communities, very few women have 15 children. Nowadays the number of births, like the age of death, has become average. Most of us have roughly the same number of offspring. Again, differences between people and the opportunity for natural selection to take advantage of it have diminished. India shows what is happening. The country offers wealth for a few in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. The grand mediocrity of today—everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring—means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in uper-middle-class India compared to the tribes.
    For us, this means that evolution if over; the biological Utopia has arrived. Strangely, it has involved little physical change. No other species fills so-many places in nature. But in the past 100,000 years—even the past 100 years—our lives have been transformed but our bodies have not. We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us. Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution: they “look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension.” No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness. But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us.
5. What used to be the danger in being a man according to the first paragraph?
    [A] lack of mates.
    [B] A fierce competition.
    [C] A lower survival rate.
    [D] A defective gene.
6. What does the example of India illustrate?
    [A] Wealthy people tend to have fewer children than poor people.
    [B] Natural selection hardly works among the rich and the poor.
    [C] The middle class population is 80% smaller than that of the tribes.
    [D] India is one of the countries with a very high birth rate.
7. The author argues that our bodies have stopped evolving because _______.
    [A] life has been improved by technological advance
    [B] the number of female babies has been declining
    [C] our species has reached the highest stage of evolution
    [D] the difference between wealth and poverty if disappearing
8. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
    [A] Sex Ratio Changes in Human Evolution
    [B] Ways of Continuing Man's Evolution
    [C] The Evolutionary Future of Nature
    [D] Human Evolution Going Nowhere
 
Passage 3
    When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. with regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be--even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right--it can hardly be classed as Literature.
    This, in brief, is what the futurist says: for a century, past conditions of life have been conditionally speeding up, till now we live in a world of noise and violence and speed. Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions have undergone a corresponding change. This our literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress. We must pour out a large stream of essential words, unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, or finite verbs. Instead of describing sounds we must make up words that imitate them; we must use many sizes of type and different colored inks on the same page, and shorten or lengthen words at will.
    Certainly their descriptions of battles are confused But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river--and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: 'Pluff ! Pluff! A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.'
    This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be classed as Literature. All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition: that a great change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. the whole question is really this: have we essentially changed?
 
9. This passage is mainly ______.
    [A] a survey of new approaches to art
    [B] a review of Futurist poetry
    [C] about merits of the Futurist movement
    [D] about laws and requirements of literature
10. When a novel literary idea appears, people should try to _______
    [A] determine its purposes
    [B] ignore its flaws
    [C] follow the new fashions
    [D] accept the principles
11. Futurists claim that we must _______.
    [A] increase the production of literature
    [B] use poetry to relieve modern stress
    [C] develop new modes of expression
    [D] avoid using adjectives and verbs
12. The author believes that Futurist poetry is _______.
    [A] based on reasonable principles
    [B] new and acceptable to ordinary people
    [C] indicative of a basic change in human nature
    [D] more of a transient phenomenon than literature
 
Passage 4
 
    Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a decline of the traditional work-moral values. Ten years ago young people were hardworking and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being, but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people don't know where they should go next.
    The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male-dominated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with school life, compared with 67.2 percent of students in the United States. In addition, far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed.
    While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and self-expression. "Those things that do not show up in the test scores--personality, ability, courage or humanity--are completely ignored," says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party's education committee. "Frustration against this kind of thing leads lids to drop out and run wild." Last year Japan experienced 2,125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War II had weakened the "Japanese morality of respect for parents."
    But that may have more to do with Japanese life-styles. "In Japan," says educator Yoko Muro, "it's never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can edure." With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent of Japan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of i, solated, two-generation households. Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels to and from work ) and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort if beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well below that of the United States, has increased by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly one-quarter.
 
13. In The Westerners' eyes, the postwar Japan was _________.
    [A] under aimless development
    [B] a positive example
    [C] a rival to the West
    [D] on the decline
14. According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible for the moral decline of Japanese society?
    [A] Women's participation in social activities is limited.
    [B] More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs.
    [C] Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics.
    [D] The life-style has been influenced by Western values.
15. Which of the following is true according to the author?
    [A] Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb the social ladder.
    [B] Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning as well as creativity .
    [C] More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity.
    [D] Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking.
16. The change in Japanese life-style is revealed in the fact that ________.
    [A] the young are less tolerant of discomforts in life
    [B] the divorce rate in Japan exceeds that in the U.S.
    [C] the Japanese endure more than ever before
    [D] the Japanese appreciate their present life
 
Passage 5
 
If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition--wealth, distinction, control over one's destiny-must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition's behalf. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them. In an odd way, however, it is the educated who have claimed to have given up on ambition as an ideal. What is odd is that they have perhaps most benefited from ambition—if not always their own then that of their parents and grandparents. There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped—with the educated themselves riding on them.
    Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs--the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than-ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with s Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is, "Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious."
    The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive. As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that ambition is driven underground, or made sly. such, then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.
 
17. It is generally believed that ambition may be well regarded if ________.
    [A] its returns well compensate for the sacrifices
    [B] it is rewarded with money, fame and power
    [C] its goals are spiritual rather than material
    [D] it is shared by the rich and the famous
18. The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that it is _______.
    [A] customary of the educated to discard ambition in words
    [B] too late to check ambition once it has been let out
    [C] dishonest to deny ambition after the fulfillment of the goal
    [D] impractical for the educated to enjoy benefits from ambition
19. Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because ________.
    [A] they think of it as immoral
    [B] their pursuits are not fame or wealth
    [C] ambition is not closely related to material benefits
    [D]they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible
20. From the last paragraph the conclusion can be drawn that ambition should be maintained ______.
    [A] secretly and vigorously
    [B] openly and enthusiastically
    [C] easily and momentarily
    [D]verbally and spiritually
 
Unit 8
 
Passage 1
 
    Specialisation can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialisation was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity.
    No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word' amateur' does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialisation in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer more complex training,' implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.
    A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.
    Although the process of professionalisation and specialisation was already well under way in British geology, during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.
 
51. The growth of specialisation in the 19th century might be more clearly seen in sciences such as ______.
    [A] sociology and chemistry
    [B] physics and psychology
    [C] sociology and psychology
    [D] physics and chemistry
52. We can infer from the passage that ________.
    [A] there is little distinction between specialisation and professionalisation
    [B] amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science
    [C] professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientific community
    [D]amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones
53. The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate _______.
    [A] the process of specialisation and professionalisation
    [B] the hardship of amateurs in scientific study
    [C] the change of policies in scientific publications
    [D]the discrimination of professionals against amateurs
54. The direct reason for specialisation is ________.
    [A] the development in communication
    [B] the growth of professionalisation
    [C] the expansion of scientific knowledge
    [D]the splitting up of academic societies
 
Passage 2
 
    A great deal of attention is being paid today to the so-called digital divide——the division of the world into the info (information) rich and the info poor. And that divide does exist today. My wife and I lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago. What was less visible then, however, were the new, positive forces that work against digital divide. There are reasons to be optimistic.
    There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access——after all, the more people online, the more potential customers there are. More and more governments, afraid their countries will be left behind, want to spread Internet access. Within the next decade or two, one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. As a result, I now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we've ever had.
    Of course, the use of the Internet isn't the only way to defeat poverty. And the Internet is not the only tool we have. but is has enormous potential.
    To take advantage of this tool, some impoverished countries will have to get over their outdated anti-colonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign investment is an invasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure ( the basic structural foundations of a society ) in the United States. When the United States built its industrial infrastructure, it didn't have the capital to do so. And that is why America's Second Wave infrastructure--including roads, harbors, highways, ports and so on--were built with foreign investment The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French were investing in Britain's former colony. They financed them. Immigrant Americans built them. Guess who owns them now? The Americans. I believe the same thing would be true in places like Brazil or anywhere else for that matter. The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third Wave infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off you're going to be. That doesn't mean lying down and becoming fooled. or letting foreign corporations run uncontrolled. But it does mean recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and telecom infrastructures needed to take full advantage of the Internet.
 
55. Digital divide is something _______.
    [A] getting worse because of the Internet
    [B] the rich countries are responsible for
    [C] the world must guard against
    [D]considered positive today
56. Governments attach importance to the Internet because it _______.
    [A] offers economic potentials
    [B] can bring foreign funds
    [C] can soon wipe out world poverty
    [D]connects people all over the world
57. The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of _______.
    [A] providing financial support overseas
    [B] preventing foreign capital's control
    [C] building industrial infrastructure
    [D]accepting foreign investment
58. It seems that now a country's economy depends much on ________.
    [A] how well-developed it is electronically
    [B] whether it is prejudiced against immigrants
    [C] whether it adopts America's industrial pattern
    [D] how much control it has over foreign corporations
 
Passage 3
 
    Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. the organization is deep into a long self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.
    Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head-scratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want
    But the sources of distrust go way deeper. Most journalists learn to see the world through a set of standard templates (patterns,) into which they plug each day's events. In other words, there is a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready-made narrative structure for otherwise confusing news.
    There exists a social and cultural disconnect between journalists and their readers, which helps explain why the "standard templates" of the newsroom seem alien to many readers. In a recent survey, questionnaires were sent to reporters in five middle-size cities around the country, plus one large metropolitan area. then residents in these communities were phoned at random and asked the same questions.
    Replies show that compared with other Americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale neighborhoods, have maids, own Mercedeses, and stocks, and they're less likely to go to church, do volunteer work, or put down roots in a community.
    Reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their work tends to reflect the conventional values of this elite. The astonishing distrust of the news media isn't rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers.
    This is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. Here is a troubled business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. Then it sponsors lots of symposiums and a credibility project dedicated to wondering why customers are annoyed and fleeing in large numbers. but it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. If it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.
 
59. What is the passage mainly about?
    [A] needs of the readers all over the world
    [B] causes of the public disappointment about newspapers
    [C] origins of the declining newspaper industry
    [D] aims of a journalism credibility project
60.  The results of the journalism credibility project turned out to be ______.
    [A] quite trustworthy                 [B] somewhat contradictory
    [C] very illuminating                 [D] rather superficial
61.  The basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in their ______.
    [A] working attitude                  [B] conventional lifestyle
    [C} world outlook                    [D] educational background
62.  Despite its efforts, the newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the readers owing to its _______.
    [A] failure to realize its real problem
    [B] tendency to hire annoying reporters
    [C] likeliness to do inaccurate reporting
    [D] prejudice in matters of race and gender
 
Passage 4
 
    The world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed. The process sweeps from hyperactive America to Europe and reaches the emerging countries with unsurpassed might. Many in these countries are looking at this process and worrying :"Won't the wave of business concentration turn into an uncontrollable anti-competitive force?"
    There's no question that the big are getting bigger and more powerful. Multinational corporations accounted for less that 20% of international trade in 1982. Today the figure is more that 25% and growing rapidly. International affiliates account for a fast-growing segment of production in economies that open up and welcome foreign investment. In Argentina, for instance, after the reforms of the early 1990s, multinationals went from 43% to almost 70% of the industrial production of the 200 largest firms. This phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role of smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world economy.
    I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&A wave are the same that underlie the globalization process; falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that requite enlarged operations capable of meeting customers' demands. All these are beneficial, not detrimental, to consumers. As productivity grows, the world's wealth increases.
    Examples of benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty. Yet it is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could re-create the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago in the U S., when the Standard Oil trust was broken up. The mergers of telecom companies, such to WorldCom, hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers of a reduction in the pace of technical progress. On the contrary, the price of communications is coming down fast. In care ,too, concentration is increasing—witness Daimler and Chrysler, Renault and Nissan—but it does not appear that consumers are being hurt.
    Yet the fact remains that the merger movement must be watched. A few weeks ago, Alan Greenspan warned against the megamergers in the banking industry. Who is going to supervise, regulate and operate as lender of last resort with the gigantic banks that are being created? Won't multinationals shift production from one place to another when a nation gets too strict about infringements to fair competition? And should one country take upon itself the role of "defending competition" on issues that affect many other nations, as in the U.S. vs. Microsoft case?
 
63.  What is the typical trend of businesses today?
    [A] to take in more foreign funds
    [B] to invest more abroad
    [C] to combine and become bigger
    [D] to trade with more countries
64.  According to the author, one of the driving forces behind M&-A wave is _______.
    [A] the greater customer demands
    [B] a surplus supply for the market
    [C] a growing productivity
    [D] the increase of the world's wealth
65.  From paragraph 4 we can infer that _______.
    [A] the increasing concentration is certain to hurt consumers
    [B] WorldCom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs
    [C] The costs of the globalization process are enormous
    [D] The Standard Oil trust might have threatened competition
66.  Toward the new business wave, the writer's attitude can be said to be _______.
    [A] optimistic   [B] objective   [C] pessimistic   [D] biased
 
Passage 5
 
    When I decided to quit my full time employment it never occurred to me that I might become a part of a new international trend. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming "I wanted to spend more time with my family".
    Curiously, some two- and-a-half years and two novels later, my experiment in what the Americans term "downshifting" has turned my tired excuse into an absolute reality. I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of 'having it all", preached by Linda Kelsey for the past seven years in the pages of She magazine, into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of everything.
    I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of "juggling your life", and making the alternative move into "downshifting brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status. Nothing could persuade me to return to the kind of life Kelsey to advocate and I once enjoyed; 12-hour working days, pressured deadlines, the fearful strain of office politics and the limitations of being a parent on "quality time".
    In America, the move away from juggling to a simpler, less materialistic lifestyle is a well-established trend. Downshifting—also known in America as "voluntary simplicity"—has, ironically, even bred a new area of what might be termed anti-consumerism. There are a number of bestselling downshifting self-help books for people who want to simplify their lives; there are newsletters, such as The Tightwad Gazette, that give hundreds of thousands of Americans useful tips on anything from recycling their cling-film to making their own soap; there are even support groups for those who want to achieve the mid-'90s equivalent of dropping out.
    While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline—after the mass redundancies caused by downsizing in the late '80s—and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middle-class downshifters of my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives.
    For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the '80s, downshifting in the mid-'90s is not so much a search for the mythical good life—growing your own organic vegetables, and risking turning into one—as a personal recognition of your limitations.
 
67.  Which of the following is true according to paragraph 1 ?
    [A] Full-time employment is a new international trend.
    [B] The writer was compelled by circumstances to leave her job.
    [C] "A lateral move" means stepping out of full-time employment.
    [D] The writer was only too eager to spend more time with her family.
68.  The writer's experiment shows that downshifting _______.
    [A] enables her to realize her dream
    [B] helps her mold a new philosophy of life
    [C] prompts her to abandon her high social status
    [D] leads her to accept the doctrine of She magazine
69.  "Juggling one's life" probably means living a life characterized by _______.
    [A] non-materialistic lifestyle       [B] a bit of everything
    [C]extreme stress                [D] anti-consumerism
70.  According to the passage, downshifting emerged in the U.S. as a result of _______.
    [A] the quick pace of modern life
    [B] man's adventurous spirit
    [C] man's search for mythical experiences
    [D] the economic situation
 
Unit 9
 
Passage 1
 
    If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. You humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to a group or managers, you many refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.
    Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. "Who is that ?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, that's God." came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor."
    If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.
    If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.
    Look for the humor. It often from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote "If at first you don't succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.
41.  To make your humor work, you should
    [A] take advantage of different kinds of audience.
    [B] make fun of the disorganized people.
    [C] address different problems to different people.
    [D] show sympathy for your listeners.
42.  The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are
    [A] impolite to new arrivals.
    [B] very conscious of their godlike role.
    [C] entitled to some privileges.
    [D] very busy even during lunch hours.
43.  It can be inferred from the text that public services
    [A] have benefited many people.
    [B] are the focus of public attention.
    [C] are an inappropriate subject for humor.
    [D] have often been the laughing stock.
44. To achieve the desired result, humorous stories should be delivered
    [A] in well-worded language.
    [B] as awkwardly as possible.
    [C] in exaggerated statement.
    [D] as casually as possible.
45.  The best title for the text may be
    [A] Use Humor Effectively.
    [B] Various Kinds of Humor.
    [C] Add Humor to Speech.
    [D] Different Humor Strategies.
 
Passage 2
 
    Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. That compulsion has resulted in robotics-the science of conferring various human capabilities on machines. And if scientists have yet to create the mechanical version of science fiction, they have begun to come close.
    As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politeness for the transaction. Our subway trains are controlled by tireless robo - drivers. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro- mechanics, there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy-far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone.
    But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least a few decisions for themselves-goals that pose a real challenge. "While we know how to tell a robot to handle a specific error." says Dave Lavery, manager of a robotics program at NASA.
    "we can't yet give a robot enough' common sense' to reliably interact with a dynamic world."
    Indeed the quest for true artificial intelligence has produced very mixed results. Despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.
    When they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain's roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented- and human perception far more complicated - than previously imagined. They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that in irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can't approach that kind of ability, and neuroscientists still don't know quite how we do it.
 
46.  Human ingenuity was initially demonstrated in
    [A] the use of machines to produce science fiction.
    [B] the wide use of machines in manufacturing industry.
    [C] the invention of tools for difficult and dangerous work.
    [D] the elite's cunning tackling of dangerous and boring work.
47.  The word "gizmos"(line 1, paragraph 2) most probably means
    [A] programs
    [B] experts.
    [C] devices.
    [D] creatures.
48.  According to the text, what is beyond man's ability now is to design a robot that can
    [A] fulfill delicate tasks like performing brain surgery.
    [B] interact with human beings verbally.
    [C] have a little common sense.
    [D] respond independently to a changing world.
49.  Besides reducing human labor, robots can also
    [A] make a few decisions for themselves.
    [B] deal with some errors with human intervention
    [C] improve factory environments.
    [D] cultivate human creativity.
50.  The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are
    [A] expected to copy human brain in internal structure.
    [B] able to perceive abnormalities immediately.
    [C] far less able that human brain in focusing on relevant information.
    [D] best used in a controlled environment.
 
Passage 3
 
    Could the bad old days of economic decline be about to return? Since OPEC agreed to supply-cuts in March, the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $ 26 a barrel, up from less than $ 10 last December. This near- tripling of oil prices calls up scary memories of the 1973 oil shock, when prices quadrupled, and 1979-1980, when they also almost tripled. Both previous shocks resulted in double- digit inflation and global economic decline. So where are the headlines warning of gloom and doom this time?
    The oil price was given another push up this week when Iraq suspended oil exports. Strengthening economic growth, at the same time as winter grips the northern hemisphere, could push the price higher still in the short term.
    Yet there are good reasons to expect the economic consequences now to be less severe than in the 1970s, In most countries the cost of crude oil now accounts for a smaller share of the price of petrol than it did in the 1970s. In Europe, taxes account for up to four-fifths of the retail price, so even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the past.
    Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were., and so less sensitive to swings in the oil price. Energy conservation, a shift to other fuels and a decline in the importance of heavy, energy-intensive industries have reduced oil consumption. Software, consultancy and mobile telephones use far less oil than steel or car production. For each dollar of GDP (in constant prices) rich economies now use nearly 50% less oil than in 1973. The OECD estimates in latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $ 22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25-0.5% of GDP. That is less than one-quarter of the income loss in 1974 or 1980. On the other hand, oil-importing emerging economies-to which heavy industry has shifted-have become more energy-intensive, and so could be more seriously squeezed.
    One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand. A sizable portion of the world is only just emerging from economic decline. The Economist's commodity price index is broadly unchanging from a year ago. In 1973 commodity prices jumped by 70%, and in 1979 by almost 30%.
 
51.  The main reason for the latest rise of oil price is
    [A] global inflation.
    [B] reduction in supply.
    [C] fast growth in economy.
    [D] Iraq's suspension of exports.
52.  It can be inferred from the text that the retail price of petrol will go up dramatically if
    [A] price of crude rises.
    [B] commodity prices rise.
    [C] consumption rises.
    [D] oil taxes rise.
53. The estimates in Economic Outlook show that in rich countries
    [A] heavy industry becomes more energy-intensive.
    [B] income loss mainly results from fluctuating crude oil prices.
    [C] manufacturing industry has been seriously squeezed.
    [D] oil price changes have no significant impact on GDP.
54.  We can draw a conclusion from the text that
    [A] oil-price shocks are less shocking now.
    [B] inflation seems irrelevant to oil-price shocks.
    [C] energy conservation can keep down the oil prices.
    [D] the price rise of crude leads to the shrinking of heavy industry.
55.  From the text we can see that the writer seems
    [A] optimistic.
    [B] sensitive.
    [C] gloomy.
    [D] scared..
 
Passage 4
 
    The Supreme Court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.
    Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect," a centuries- old moral principle holding that an action having town effects- a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen-is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.
    Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high doses of morphine to control terminally ill patients' pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient.
    Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shield doctors who "until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that might hasten death."
    George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death. "It's like surgery," he says, "We don't call those deaths homicides because the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients, although they risked their death. If you're a physician, you can risk your patient's suicide as long as you don't intend their suicide."
    On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted-suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.
    Just three weeks before the Court's ruling on physician-assisted suicide, the National Academy of Science (NAS) released a two- volume report, Approaching Death; Improving Care at the End of Life. It identifies the undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end-of-life care.
    The profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospices, to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies, to develop a Medicare billing code for hospital-based care, and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life.
    Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these well- meaning medical initiatives translate into better care.. "Large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering," to the extent that is constitutes " systematic patient abuse. " He says medical licensing boards "must make it clear ... that painful deaths are presumptively ones that are incompetently managed and should result in license suspension."
 
56. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that
    [A] doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients' pain.
    [B] it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives.
    [C] the Supreme Court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide.
    [D] patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide.
57. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
    [A] Doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients' death.
    [B] Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery.
    [C] The Court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed.
    [D] A doctor's medication is no longer justified by his intentions.
58. According to the NAS's report, one of the problems in end-of-life care is
    [A] prolonged medical procedures.
    [B] inadequate treatment of pain.
    [C] systematic drug abuse.
    [D] insufficient hospital care.
59. Which of the following best defines the word "aggressive" (line 4, p, aragraph 7)?
    [A] Bold.
    [B] Harmful.
    [C] Careless.
    [D] Desperate.
60. George Annas would probably agree that doctors should be punished if they
    [A] manage their patients incompetently.
    [B] give patients more medicine than needed.
    [C] reduce drug dosages for their patients.
    [D] prolong the needless suffering of the patients.
第二部分 阅读理解全真模拟题 (Units 10-16)
 
Unit 10
 
Passage 1
    "Fathers should be neither seen nor heard." wrote Oscar Wilde. "This is the only proper basis for family life." It's hard to say what Wilde would have thought of this week' s cover photo or the pictures inside of dads and their children. Several clearly defy the outdated idea of fathers as detached from the parenting process. And that's just what the photographers intended.
    Gregory Heisler, who did the cover photograph, says he wanted the image to show genuine affection. So, rather than use professional models, he went out and found some "real dads and their real kids." Adds Heisler: "Instead of doing some slick, over-produced shot, I wanted something more authentic to the experience of being a father." This isn't the first time that Heisler, 39, has conveyed complex ideas for the cover of TIME. His photographs have graced the front of the magazine some 20 times, ranging from Olympic athlete Jackie Joyner-Kersee and director David Lynch to former President George Bush and Ted Turner for the Man of the Year issues in 1991 and 1992, respectively. But this week's TIME cover has special meaning, he says, because he and his wife Prudence had their first child, Lucy, 16 months ago.
    The pictures appearing inside were all done by photographer Jeffrey Lowe. Although Lowe has not experienced fatherhood yet, he observed many intimate moments of parenting by spending a lot of private time with each dad and child. Of all the pictures. Lowe was most deeply touched by the father-to-be embracing his pregnant wife.
While most of the credit for the pictures rightly goes to those behind the camera, cover coordinator Lina Freeman and assistant picture editor Mary Worrell Bousquette, who work behind the scenes, also deserve accolades. Freeman, for instance, had the challenging task of making arrangements for the group portrait of child movie stars by Heisler that appears on page 62. Says she: "My greatest reward is working with these talented artists." Bousquette edited the pictures that appear inside. "I wanted our story to show the many faces of fatherhood," she says. At least in this issue, those fathers are seen as well as heard. Sorry, Oscar.
 
1. In Oscar Wilde's view, ________.
    A) distance between fathers and their children is essential in family life
    B) fathers should play a greater role in family life
    C) family life is something that fathers enjoy most
    D) fathers are never sure about what they should do at home.
2. The photographers of this week's TIME intended ________.
    A) to support Oscar Wilde's view
    B) to prove that Oscar Wilde was wrong
    C) to apologize to Oscar Wilde
    D) to show their respect-for Oscar Wilde
3. The word 'graced' in the second paragraph means ________.
    A) decorated                B) substituted
    C) turned out                D) mixed up
4. How did Jeffrey Lowe manage to portray fathers' feelings accurately?
    A) He tried to experience fatherhood himself.
    B) He spent most of his time with his pregnant wife.
    C) He mixed with many fathers and their children.
    D) He studied the relationship between each member in a family.
 
Passage 2
 
    In Russia don't look to read about actor X sneaking out to the Bolshoi with starlet Y, while his famous author wife is on vacation in Odessa with her children from two previous marriages. Even if X and Y were engaged in hanky-panky, the country could not do the story justice, since it lacks the equivalents of People or Vanity Fair, the National Enquirer or Entertainment Tonight. Nor do famous lives play themselves out in newspapers or on television. The press is as conservative as the sovety at large, where direct questions about private lives are considered insulting. Movie magazines are simply film synopses and accounts of production and casting.
    That does not mean, however, that inquiring Russian minds don't want to know. "It often seems as if it is the national pastime to gossip about me," says pop superstar Alla Pugacheva, 39, the biggest musical draw in the country. "Perhaps we are better off here than in the West. We do not have entire magazines devoted to our private lives. But Soviets don't need a magazine to gossip." Instead, a vast rumor mill operates 24 hours a day 365 1/4 days a year. A study of some unofficial youth groups in Tadjikstan in Central Asia listed among them "Celebrity Hounds," which a local paper described as "people who try to gain prestige among the less informed by exchanging stories about the private lives of stars."
    Some may consider the meager trickle (细流) of personal detail about a pop star a blessing, but the lack of information about politicians proved to be a handicap for voters in last month's election. "Even if voters knew a candidate's program, they did not know the man himself," complains Yegor Yakovlev, editor of Moscow News. Soviet newspapers and magazines discuss the personal lives of leaders only when the person is dead and usually out of favor (thus only last fall did Moscow News claim that Leonid Brezhnev, who died in 1982, had been revived from clinical death in 1976, and was tended constantly by doctors for the rest of his life) or when refuting a nasty bit of gossip. Observes Zhenia, a semiprofessional celebrity watcher in Moscow: "The way it works is that first a rumor starts, then gains momentum (势头), then, and only then, something appears in the press denying the rumor as unfounded."
 
5. Famous lives are rarely publicized through the mass media in Russia because ________.
    A) famous lives are not exciting enough
    B) it is difficult to get interesting stories
    C) it is against the nation's moral standards
    D) famous people don't want others to know about their lives
6. What is the attitude of ordinary Russians towards the private lives of famous people?
    A) Indifferent.                 B) Respectful.
    C) Blindfold.                  D) Inquisitive at heart.
7. From the passage we know that pop superstar Alla Pugacheva ________.
    A) is proud to be the center of national gossip
    B) lives a better life than stars in the west
    C) wishes to attract more attention from the mass media
    D) doesn't want to be the center of national gossip
8. In the writer's opinion, politicians' lives ________.
    A) should always be kept secret
    B) can be publicized after their death
    C) can be publicized in order to refute the gossips
    D) can be publicized to let the public know them better
 
Passage 3
 
    Children are in need of adoption because some birth parents are unable or unavailable to provide adequately for the needs of their child. There are numerous reasons for making an adoption plan. Birth parents may feel they cannot take on the responsibility of an unplanned child because they are too young or because they are financially or emotionally unable to provide proper care. They do not feel ready or able to be good parents.
    In other cases children are in need of adoption because courts have decided that their birth parents are unable to function adequately. Many of these children are victims of abuse or neglect. Regardless of how children come to need adoption, they are put with adoptive parents through private or public social service agencies. Other adoptions may be arranged independently, as when birth parents and adoptive parents come to know each other outside of an agency and then complete the adoption according to the laws and regulations of their states of residence.
    Which Children Need Adoption
    Children from all countries and all walks of life need adopting. Although international adoptions occur, the largest number of adoptions in the United States involve American parents adopting American infants. Statistics on the ethnicity of both parties are incomplete.
    In the early 1970s there was a dramatic increase n the number of families seeking to adopt, a condition which persists today. For this reason, the number of those who wish to adopt regularly exceeds the number of infants available. Reasons for this dramatic increase are varied. A major factor has been the choice of many people to delay the start of a family until later in life. Many of these people, in turn, have found themselves to be less fertile at that time, and so they have decided that their desire to have children might best be fulfilled through adoption.
    In every state, however, there are children who are legally free to be adopted but are desperately waiting for parents. The children in this group are usually older and often have special needs. They may require additional care from a parent because of their physical, emotional, or mental disabilities (which may have been caused by abuse, neglect, or medical or genetic factors). Because of their special needs, these children are challenging to rear. In fact, adoption experts believe that people who adopt these children need special training and preparation in order to successfully rear the child and to integrate the child into the family and eventually into society.
    In cases of international adoption, Americans have adopted orphaned children from places like Korea, India, and Latin America. United States immigration laws allow such children to reside in the United States through a special visa under which the children are classified as immediate relatives of the adopting family. The laws, regulations, and attitudes toward international addoption vary a great deal from one country to another. Because of this, people wishing to adopt should use experienced agencies or organizations in order to adopt a child from another country successfully.
    Stepparent adoption is, also very common. Most often, this type of adoption occurs when one of the child's birth parents has remarried and the new spouse adopts the child. In such adoptions, the consent of the other birth parent is usually required, because it entails the termination of that parent's rights.
 
9. The author thinks of adoption as ________.
    A) illegal                  B) unethical
    C) unavoidable             D) necessary
10. What is the most important reason for the adoption boom in the 1970s?
    A) In the early 1970s, adoption came into vogue among young American couples.
    B) Many women chose adoption for fear that their figure might be adversely affected after giving birth to babies.
    C) Many people who married late found they were less fertile and had to adopt children.
    D) Due to the baby boom in the 1960s, the American government carried out family planning and many people had to adopt children.
11. By saying "these are children who are legally free to be adopted but are desperately waiting for parents", the author suggests that ________.
    A) few people would like to adopt these children for they are hard to rear
    B) the children were eager to be lover by their birth parents
    C) although some people would like to adopt them, these children would rather wait for their birth parents.
    D) their birth parents abandoned them but these children still loved them
12. According to the passage, international adoption ________.
    A) occurs more often than adoptions of American infants
    B) mostly involves European orphans
    C) should be done through experienced agencies
    D) should be banned right away
 
Passage 4
 
    Joshua DeShaney is paralyzed and profoundly retarded, the victim of brutal pummelings at age four by his father. Joshua, now nine, is also the victim of inaction by Wisconsin's Winnebago County department of social services. The agency failed to remove the child from his divorced father's custody despite continual reports of abuse for nearly two years, repeated hospitalizations for serious injuries, and regular observations by a caseworker of suspicious bumps and lesions. Joshua's father was convicted of child abuse in 1984 and paroled from prison after less than two years. Last week, in a ruling that stunned children's rights advocates around the country, the U.S. Supreme Court voted 6 to 3 to absolve Winnebago County of constitutional responsibility for Joshua's fate.
    "A state's failure to protect an individual against private violence," declared Chief Justice William Rehnquist, was not a denial of the victim's constitutional rights. "While the state may have been aware of the dangers that Joshua faced in the free world, it played no part in their creation, nor did it do anything to render him any more vulnerable to them." The majority's ruling provoked an emotional dissent from Justice Harry Blackmun. "Poor Joshua! Victim of repeated attacks by an irresponsible, bullying, cowardly and intemperate father, and abandoned by county officials who placed him in a dangerous predicament," he wrote. "It is a sad commentary upon American life and constitutional principles."
    Government child-welfare agencies expressed relief over the decision. "A contrary ruling would have seriously affected programs and budgetary priorities," explained Benna Ruth Solomon of the State and Local Legal Center in Washington. For child advocates, the opinion was deeply troubling. Said James Weill of the Children's Defense Fund: "It's part of a line of decisions in which the court has indicated significant hostility to legal protections for children." Suits against agencies may still be filed in some state courts, but local laws often permit little or no recourse. In Joshua's case, a Wisconsin statute limits damages to $50,000--less than the cost of a year's medical care for the tragically battered youngster.
 
13. By saying "Joshua is also a victim of inaction by Wisconsin's Winnebago county department of social services", the author means ________.
    A) the agency should have sent someone to Joshua's home to take care of him
    B) the court had made the ruling that the child should be removed from his father, the agency failed to do so
    C) the agency should have taken actions to remove the child from his father's custody
    D) the agency failed to send the child to his mother
14. Which of the following was the reason given by Chief Justice William Rehnquist for absolving Winnebago County of constitutional responsibility for Joshua's fate?
    A) The agency had no responsibility of taking care of the abused child.
    B) The agency didn't play a part in the child abuse.
    C) The agency was so busy that it had no time to deal with Joshua's case.
    D) The agency couldn't intrude upon other people's personal affairs.
15. According to Justice Harry Blackmun, Joshua's fate ________.
    A) reflects the sad aspects of American life and constitutional principles
    B) provokes people to comment on American life and constitutional principles
    C) makes people disappointed with American life and constitutional principles
    D) has a profound impact on American life and constitutional principles
16. It can be inferred from the passage that ________.
    A) the author definitely agrees with Chief Justice William Rehnquist's point of view
    B) government child-welfare agencies expressed dissent to the ruling made by the Supreme Court
    C) Joshua would get $ 50,000 damages from the Wisconsin's Winnebago County
    D) U.S. children's rights advocates were dissatisfied with the ruling made by the Supreme Court
 
Passage 5
 
    Is there a link between crime and population growth? And how does social change aggravate the current crime surge? James Q. Wilson, professor of management and public policy at UCLA and author of Thinking About Crime and The Moral sense, gave his views last week in an interview with TIME assistant editor Susanne Washburn. Excerpts:
    Any historian knows that crime waves, in fact, are cyclical. Earlier ones occurred in the 1830s, the late 1860s and the 1920s. The question is, what causes the cycles, and what affects their timing? Crime was abnormally low in the 1940s and 1950s and began to rise around 1963 and peaked in the late 1970s. The increase in crime from 1963 to 1980 was enormous--and it occurred in a period of general prosperity. Part of the explanation is that the population got younger, because of the baby boom--and younger men are more likely to commit crime than older ones.
    Then in the early 1980s, almost all forms of crime began to decline for a while. The baby boom got old, so the baby boomers were no longer in the crime-prone years. We saw this is declining public-school enrollments. Now, however, if you look at what's happening in elementary schools, enrollments are going up because the children of baby boomers are starting to move through the cycle. My guess--and the guess of many other criminologists--is that by the end of this decade we will see an increase in the general crime rate regardless of what the government does.
    Obviously, we want to do everything possible to moderate its severity. And public policy ought to be directed toward that end. The public expects it. I think politicians will fact up to it. But we simply have to realize we are in an era when our ability to moderate the severity of crimes is substantially reduced from what it once was. We are much more reliant on public policy, which is a crude and not very effective instrument. And we are much less dependent on informal social controls, which, when they work, are the most powerful controls.
    The most significant thing in the last half-century has been the dramatic expansion in personal freedom and personal mobility, individual rights, the reorienting of culture around individuals. We obviously value that. But like all human gains, it has been purchased at a price. Most people faced with greater freedom from family, law, village, clan, have used it for good purposes--artistic expression, economic entrepeneurship, self-expression--but a small fraction of people have used it for bad purposes. So just as we have had an artistic and economic explosion, we have had a crime explosion. I think the two are indissolubly entwined. When that prosperity puts cars, drugs and guns into the hands of even relatively poor 18-year-olds, young people can do a great deal more damage today than they could in the 1940s or 1950s.
 
17. According to James Q. Wilson, which statement is true?
    A) There's no definite connection between crimes and population.
    B) Baby boom may lead to an increase in crime.
    C) The increase in crime from 1963 to 1980 was completely due to economic prosperity.
    D) Better public policy will definitely result in a decline in crime.
18. When was crime extremely high?
    A) In the early 1960s.          B) In the late 1960s.
    C) In the early 1970s.          D) In the late 1970s.
19. Wilson believes that by the end of this decade we will see an increase in the general crime because ________.
    A) an economic prosperity is around the corner
    B) enrollments are going up in high schools
    C) crime waves are cyclical
    D) there will be a new generation of baby boomers
20. In moderating the severity of crimes, which of the following is the most effective?
    A) Prisons.                    B) The police.
    C) Public policy.                D) Informal social controls.
 
Unit 11
 
Passage 1
 
    In Hollywood, as in war, truth is often the first casualty. Stories told on screen demand heroes, villains and an intelligible plot line. Real life, on the other hand, tends to get messy--the lines between good and bad often cross. Two years ago, director Oliver Stone was excoriated in the press for playing fast and loose with certain facts in JFK. Jim Sheridan's In the Name of the Father has largely escaped such criticism in the U.S., but only because Americans are unfamiliar with the story it is based on. In Britain, where people have lived with the case of the Guildford Four for 20 years, the film's reception has been considerably stormier.
    The movie tells the tale of Gerry Conlon, who along with three other youths was falsely accused of killing five people in a 1974 I.R.A. bombing of two pubs in Guildford, England. The four--three men and a woman--served 14 years in prison before their convictions were overturned. Seven friends and relatives of Conlon's (the Maguire Seven), including his father, also served many years on trumped-up charges of having made the bombs.
    Though Sheridan never set out to make a documentary, he has been attacked for needlessly distorting the facts of the case. The film, for instance, shows the Maguire Seven on trial with the Guildford Four, though the cases were tried separately. In some of its most affecting scenes, it shows Conlon, played by Daniel Day-Lewis, sharing a jail cell with his father, though the two were often not even in the same prison. A grand and heroic part is carved for actress Emma Thompson, playing Conlon's solicitor, Gareth Peirce, but in reality Peirce was a minor figure and another attorney, Alastair Logan, deserves most of the credit for freeing the Four. A pivotal scene in which Peirce smuggles a crucial piece of suppressed evidence from a police file was fabricated for the film; it was a police investigation that uncovered the buried evidence of Conlon's innocence.
    Sheridan insists that he was seeking an "emotional honesty" and that the real subject of his film was a son's changing relationship with his father. But if that was his intended subject, say some close to the case, the director should have used someone else's story. "The truth is that Gerry Conlon had very little time for his father," says Sean Smyth, an uncle. "It's a good film, well acted and everything," concedes Conlon's aunt, Anne Maguire. "But I think if they'd put more of the true facts in, it would have been a much more powerful film."
 
1. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that_____.
    A) films often reflect real life
    B) Oliver Stone, a well-known director, deserved high praise for his work in JFK
    C) The film In the Name of the Father is based on the case of Guildford Four
    D) Unlike Americans, British people think highly of the film In the Name of the Father
2. According to the context, "excoriated" (para 1, line4) means "_____."
    A) praised                     B) severely criticized
    C) awarded prize                D) advertised
3. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?
    A) Gerry Colon and three othe youths were proved innocent after 14 years' imprisonment.
    B) Colon's father was also sentenced to several years' imprisonment.
    C) It is true that Colon and his father were tried together at the court.
    D) Colon, in fact, didn't stay in the same jail cell as his father.
4. Who played the most important role in getting Colon's conviction overturned?
    A) Colon's father .               B) The police.
    C) Gareth peire .                D) Alastair Logan.
 
Passage 2
 
    Every British citizen who is employed (or self-employed) is obliged to pay a weekly contribution to the national insurance and health schemes. An employer also makes a contribution for each of his employees, and the Government too pays a certain amount. This plan was brought into being in 1948. Its aim is to prevent anyone from going without medical services, if he needs them, however poor he may be; to ensure that a person who is out of work shall receive a weekly sum of money to survive; and to provide a small pension for those who have reached the age of retirement.
    Everyone can register with a doctor of his choice and if he is ill he can consult the doctor without having to pay for the doctor's services, although he has to pay a small charge for medicines. The doctor may, if necessary, send a patient to a specialist, or to a hospital; in both cases treatment will be given without any fee being payable. Those who wish may become private patients, paying for their treatment, but they must still pay their contributions to the national insurance and health schemes.
    During illness the patient can draw a small amount every week, to make up for his lost wages. Everyone who needs to have his eyes seen to may go to a state-registered oculist and if his sight is weak he can get spectacles from an optician at a much reduced price. For a small payment he may go to a dentist; if he needs false teeth, he can obtain dentures (假牙) for less than they would cost from a private dentist. Various other medical appliances can be obtained in much the same way.
    When a man is out of work, he may draw unemployment benefit until he finds work again; this he will probably do by going to a Job Centre (an office run by the State to help people find jobs). If he is married, the allowance he receives will he larger. Obviously the amount paid is comparatively small, for the State does not want people to stop working in order to draw a handsome sum of money for doing nothing!
    When a man reaches the age of sixty-five, he may retire from work and then he has the right to draw a State pension. For women, the age of retirement is sixty.
    Mothers-to-be and children receive special benefits such as free milk or certain food stuffs for which only a minimum charge is made. The State pays to the mother a small weekly sum for each child in a family. There is also an allowance for funerals, for the State boasts that it looks after people "from the cradle to the grave"! There are special benefits for certain people, such as the blind and the handicapped.
    Most people in Britain agree that there are still many improvements to be made in the national insurance and health schemes, but it is also true that they have become a social institution that the great majority of the population wishes to see maintained.
5. The money for the national insurance and health schemes comes from_____.
    A) one source                      B) two sources
    C) three sources                    D) four sources
6. Every citizen in Britain _____.
    A) receives pay from the government
    B) registers with a doctor and becomes a private patient
    C) has access to medical services almost free of charge
    D) retires from work in the early sixties
7. Which of the following is true?
    A) Unemployment benefit makes people stay idle at home.
    B) Unemployment benefit is supposed to help people pull through a difficult time.
    C) Unemployment benefit is insufficient to keep a family alive.
    D) Unemployment benefit is available to married people only.
8. In the last paragraph, "they" refers to ______.
    A) most people in Britain
    B) national insurance and health schemes
    C) people's wishes
    D) improvements to be made
 
Passage 3
 
    There will be plenty to talk about when 35 Roman Catholic Archbishops of the U.S. meet with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican this week. The purpose of the gathering, in fact. is to clear the air on a number of nettlesome issues, ranging from doctrinal discipline to the role of women in the church, on which the Pontiff and the U.S. prelates do not see eye to eye. By coincidence, one of their most vexing disputes was settled just days earlier, in District of Columbia Superior Court. Judge Frederick Weisberg ruled that the Catholic University of America had every righ tot follow John Paul's dictates by removing from its theology faculty Father Charles Curran, an outspoken professor who questions church policies on birth control, abortion, homosexuality, premarital sex and divorce.
    Among the U.S.'s 233 catholic colleges, Curran's former employer is unique. The Catholic University was chartered (特许) in 1889 by the papacy, and its theology school grants Vatican-authorized degrees. While most U.S. Catholic universities are run by predominantly lay boards, the school's chancellor is the Archbishop of Washington, and 16 bishops, usually including all active U.S. Cardinals, sit on its 40-member board. Last year the board carried out a 1986 Vatican directive and barred Curran from teaching Catholic theology. Curran, 54, retained tenure but spurned compromise offers to teach nontheological subjects in other departments.
    The judge ruled that Curran "could not reasonably have expected that the university would defy a definitive judgment by the Holy See that he was 'unsuitable' and 'ineligible' to teach Catholic theology." There was a "direct and unavoidable" conflict, said the court, between academic freedom and the school's fealty (忠效) to the Pope. The university sided with Rome, and "whether that is ultimately good for the university or for the church is something they have a right to decide for themselves." Heartily agreeing, a Vatican official said the "essential issue was the freedom of the church to regulate teaching of theology in its own schools." Curran, who is now teaching theology at the University of Southern California, will file no appeal. Says he: "I'm a free man now, and better for it."
    It is unclear whether the decision will have a broader effect on Catholic higher education in the U.S. Curan thinks it might, "given the current atmosphere" of John Paul's campaign to clamp down on errant theology teachers in seminaries and universities. But Sister Alice Gallin of the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities, emphasizes Catholic University's unusual status and expects no spillover effect. She adds, however, that the case is "a warning the faculties must protect academic freedom."
 
9. The purpose of the meeting between the Pope and the US Archbishops is to talk about _____.
    A) Curran's case
    B) some troublesome issues concerning both sides
    C) women's role in the church
    D) birth control, abortion, homosexuality and divorce
10. In what sense is the Catholic University of America unique?
    A) Its board mainly consists of active US bishops.
    B) Its board consists of both Vatican and US bishops.
    C) The head of the school is an archbishop.
    D) The school grants both Vatican and American degrees.
11. Curran was deprived of the right to teach theology in the Catholic University because _____.
    A) he was a homosexual
    B) he was against the Pope
    C) he was an incompetent teacher
    D) he questions some of the church's policies
12. How did Curran react to the court's verdict?
    A) He is relieved to be free from the Catholic control.
    B) He will appeal to the Superior Court.
    C) He will remain in the school to teacher other subjects.
    D) He is grateful to be able to keep his tenure.
 
passage 4
 
    Forty years ago no one was concerned about the health of the ocean, in spite of the fact that many fisheries were being overharvested, toxic wastes were being dumped in the sea, and developers were beginning to seriously disrupt coastlines. In those days, the magnitude of the problems was small, even though it was obvious that if the trends continued people would face severe economic and personal hardship in the future. People just didn't understand, nor did they care. Unfortunately many of our concerns were realized, but the situation could have been much worse had we, and others, not taken action to inform people about the ocean and the need to protect it.
    During out campaign to share the wonders of the sea and alert the public about the need to protect it, we have used every medium available - personal appearances, the printed work, and television. Now there is a new medium that is even more effective than its predecessors. Thanks to the Internet and computers, people can not only receive linear stories, but they can actually participate in them, exploring and learning at their own pace and as their curiosity dictates, I am tremendously impressed with the personalization of what had been labeled by skeptics as the most impersonal medium yet developed.
    For these reasons I have made a major commitment of time and resources to dive into this sea of electronic marvels. I'm swimming hard to keep up, but when I look around I find I'm not alone. We are all learning together and it is an adventure I am finding immensely rewarding. I have been encouraged by our first modest dunking in this new world: We recently completed a CD-ROM, Jean-Michel Cousteau's World: Cities Under the Sea-Coral Reefs. A couple of months ago I was in Fiji to celebrate the 1997 International Year of the Reef and presented our Cities Under the Sea CD-ROM to a group of children. I was impressed to see how quickly they grasped our concepts and how they directed their own learning process, thanks to the flexibility of the medium. It was particularly exciting to see kids squeal with delight as they responded to questions and the computer rewarded them when they got the correct answers.
    I want young people to experience the mystery and wonder of our oceans. I want them to understand how precious and vulnerable out environment is. Young people need to be taught to take responsibility for ensuring that their heritage will be protected and used wisely. Hopefully the next generation will do a better job than mine has. I believe individuals must be personally involved and I am counting on the Internet to be the medium through which people can experience, learn, and take action. I am counting on young people with their idealism and energy to create a better future - it is too important to be left to bureaucrats and politicians.
 
13. Forty years ago people were indifferent to the health of the ocean because ______.
    A) the ocean was immune to any pollution then
    B) they didn't know what would become of if the ocean was deadly disrupted
    C) there was no computer then
    D) there wasn't any problem with the ocean at that time.
14. The last sentence of the 2nd paragraph tells us that the writer believes that _____.
    A) the computer is as smart as human beings.
    B) the computer is friends with human beings.
    C) human beings can interact with the computer and do what they want at their will
    D) human beings have not used the computer to its fullest advantage
15. The writer went to Fuji to _____.
    A) participate in a celebration
    B) teach children there how to use the computer
    C) make an adventure in the sea
    D) spend the holiday on the seashore
16. The writer's attitude to the prospect of the ocean is _____.
    A) desperate                  B) unconcerned
    C) optimistic                 D) pragmatic
 
Passage 5
 
    When fossil fuels such as coal, gasoline, and fuel oils are burned, they emit oxides of sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen into the air. These oxides combine with moisture in the air to form sulfuric acid, carbonic acid, and nitric acid. When it rains or snows, these acids are brought to Earth in what is called acid rain.
    During the course of the 20th century, the acidity of the air and acid rain have come to be recognized as a leading threat to the stability and quality of the Earth's environment. Most of this acidity is produced in the industrialized nations of the Northern Hemisphere - the United States, Canada, Japan, and most of the countries of Eastern and Western Europe.
    The effects of acid rain can be devastating to many forms of life, including human life. Its effects can be most vividly seen, however, in lakes, rivers, and streams and on vegetation. Acidity in water kills virtually all life forms. By the early 1990s tens of thousands of lakes had been destroyed by acid rain. The problem has been most severe in Norway, Sweden, and Canada.
    The threat posed by acid rain is not limited by geographic boundaries, for prevailing winds carry the pollutants around the globe. For example, much research supports the conclusion that pollution from coal-powered electric generating stations in the midwestern United States is the ultimate cause of the severe acid-rain problem in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Nor are the destructive effects of acid rain limited to the natural environment. Structures made of stone, metal, and cement have also been damaged or destroyed. Some of the world's great monuments, including the cathedrals of Europe and the Coliseum in Rome, have shown signs of deterioration caused by acid rain.
    Scientists use what is called the pH factor to measure the acidity or alkalinity of liquid solutions. On a scale from 0 to 14, the number 0 represents the highest level of acid and 14 the most basic or alkaline. A solution of distilled water containing neither acids nor alkalis, or bases, is designated 7, or neutral. If the pH level of rain falls below 5.5, the rain is considered acidic. Rainfalls in the eastern United States and in Western Europe often range from 4.5 to 4.0.
    Although the cost of such antipollution equipment as burners, filters, and chemical and washing devices is great, the cost in damage to the environment and human life is estimated to be much greater because the damage may be irreversible. Although preventative measures are being taken, up to 500,000 lakes in North America and more than 4 billion cubic feet (118 million cubic meters) of timber in Europe may be destroyed before the end of the 20th century.
 
17. In this passage, the writer focuses his discussion on _____.
    A) how to measure acid rain
    B) how to define acid rain
    C) the serious effects of acid rain
    D) the measures man has taken to control acid rain
18. From the 4th paragraph, we can safely conclude that the severe acid-rain problem eastern Canada is _____.
    A) the result of the pollutants carried by the wind from coal-powered electric generating station in the mid-western United States
    B) the result of a revenge taken by the American government on Canada due to a coal mine dispute
    C) the result of air pollution caused by Canadian industries
    D) the result of the excessive mining of a coal mine in eastern Canada
19. According to the passage, the pH level of rain falls in Norway must be _____.
    A) between 4.5-4.0                 B) around 7
    C) between 7-14                   D) below 5.5
20. What's the writer's attitude to the problem of acid rain?
    A) Indifferent.                     B) Concerned
    C) Satisfied.                       D) Optimistic
 
Unit 12
 
Passage 1
 
    Stevie Wonder has had an incredible career spanning over 30 years and numerous musical phases. Born Steveland Morris on May 13, 1950 in saginaw Michigan, Stevie Wonder was placed in an incubator and given too much oxygen, causing permanent sight loss. Stevie has always considered his blindness to be a gift from God, allowing him to heighten his other senses (most notably his hearing.) A child prodigy at an early age, Steveland sang like a seasoned veteran. He mastered the piano at the age of seven and the harmonica and drums two years later. Berry Gordon was introduced to Steveland through a member of The Miracles and quickly signed the young man to a recording contract with Motown records at the tender age of 12. His name was then changed to Little Stevie Wonder, the "Little" being naturally dropped once Stevie grew out of it. His first album, Little Stevie Wonder the 12 Year Old Genius made the child a huge star, and gave Stevie a number one hit with single Fingertips.
    Once Stevie turned the age of 21 in 1971, he didn't immediately resign with Motown. Now able to draw funds from his trust fund, he invested in his own recording studio where he could finance his own recordings. Stevie also took some music theory classes at USC to improve his song writing capabilities. Stevie recorded two albums on his own (Where I'm Coming From and Music of My Mind) With these two albums, Stevie negotiated a contract with Motown that allowed him more freedom in artistic matters and a higher royalty percentage. Such a contract was nearly unheard of then, since Motown had a reputation of being merely a hit-making machine with little variety. Once the new contract was signed, Stevie released the two albums. Although the albums were not huge successes, Stevie showed signs of the genius that was about to come.
    In August of 1973, Stevie Wonder was involved in a near fatal accident on the way to a concert in North Carolina when his car was crushed by timber. Stevie was comatose (昏迷的) for nearly a day and lost his sense of smell due to the crash. Otherwise, he came out of the accident without major injury, but with an all new sense of mortality. His next album, "Fulfillingness' First Finale" (1974) expressed this new sense of life musically.
    Throughout this period, Stevie Wonder nearly swept all possible Grammys he was eligible for.
    During the 1980's Stevie Wonder entered a phase of his career which was perhaps his most successful commercially.
    Throughout the 90's, Stevie has continued making important music. His 1994 album Conversation Peace was Stevie back in vintage form; beautiful, catchy melodies intermixed with meaningful lyrics and funky rhythms. For Your Love won two Grammys at the 1996 Grammy Awards for Best R & B Song and R & B Male vocal. Currently Stevie remains an active force in music, releasing a double live album in late 1995 and appearing on various other compellations.
    Stevie's career as a musician transcends the realm of music; he has been an active voice for numerous causes. From fighting hunger, blindness and disease in Africa and the U.S.A. to fighting for racial equality and recognition, Stevie has already left a legacy of love and compassion along with his incredible music. Wonder was awarded the Grammy's Lifetime Achievement Award in 1996 and was one of the first inductees into Cleveland's Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Yet with these high honors signifying his career one feels he still has a long time to go . Stevie keeps on keepin' on.
 
1. How does Stevie Wonder think of his blindness?
    A) He thinks he is an unfortunate person.
    B) He thinks it is lucky to be a blind man.
    C) He thinks his blindness has contributed a lot to his musical career.
    D) He feels hopeless because of his blindness.
2. In this selection, the writer puts an emphasis on _____.
    A) Stevie Wonder's musical achievements
    B) Stevie Wonder's fight against blindness
    C) Stevie Wonder's private life
    D) Stevie Wonder's misfortune
3. According to the passage, in which period did Wonder earn most money?
    A) 1960s                  B) 1970s
    C) 1980s                  D) 1990s
4. The most important significance of Stevie Wonder's new contract signed with Motown in 1971 is that _____.
    A) he could earn much more money
    B) he could exert his artistic ability as freely as possible
    C) he had to obey the arrangement of Motown in musical matters
    D) he resigned with Motown after working for it for a long time
 
Passage 2
 
    "Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night stay these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds - but if they are late, they'll hide or trash your mail and no one will be the wiser." That seems to be the new motto for certain employees of the U.S. postal Service. In a surprise audit disclosed last week, postal inspectors in Washington found that some local managers temporarily stashed unprocessed mail in parked trailers so that the letters and packages wouldn't be immediately noticed as delayed. Millions of pieces of undelivered mail were found, including 2.3 million bulk-business letters, some of which had been delayed nine days, and 800,000 first-class letters, which had been held for three days.
    The new evidence of postal mischief follows a major scandal uncovered last spring in Chicago, which had been plagued by sloppy service and late deliveries. Confirming the public's worse suspicions, police found a foot-high pile of month-old mail under a porch, and fire fighters came upon 2,300 lbs. of old mail in a letter carrier's home.
    On Friday, postal workers in the nation's capital were ordered to work overtime on the weekend to clear the backlog of mail. Just two years ago, postmaster General Marvin Runyon promised to turn the district's postal service into a "showpiece" of modern technology and efficiency. Yet, in a recent survey by the accounting firm Price Waterhouse, Washington ranked dead last among urban areas for on-time mail delivery. Several members of Congress-angry because some of the delayed letters in Washington could be from constituents trying to contact them-charge that the mail holdups could be illegal and plan to investigate the postal system. The House subcommittee on postal operations has summoned Runyon to testify at a hearing about the problems this week. The General Accounting Office plans an investigation of service snafus. "Our Postal Service is a disaster," says Missouri Democrat William Clay, chairman of the House Post Office and Civil Service Committee. "And it is as disheartening nationwide as it is in Washington."
 
5. It was found by postal inspectors in Washington that _____.
    A) postal service proved to be perfect and efficient
    B) local managers tried their best to clear delayed mail
    C) local managers sometimes cheated in their work by hiding undelivered mail
    D) postmen were too tired because of their heavy workload
6. Two years ago, postmaster General Marvin Runyon promised to _____.
    A) clear the backlog of mail
    B) turn the postal service in the district the largest one across the country
    C) use advanced technology and therefore make the district postal service as efficient as possible
    D) get rid of sloppy service and late deliveries
7. According to a recent survey by the accounting firm Price Waterhouse, it can be known that ______.
  A) Washington service was the worst in on-time mail delivery among all national cities
  B) Washington service was the best in on-time mail delivery across the country
  C) Washington had the most efficient postal workers
  D) Washington had the worst postal facilities
8. Some Congressmen charged that the mail hold-ups could be against the law because ______.
  A) they couldn't tolerate the sloppy service and delayed delivery
  B) mail hold-ups affected the contact between their potential voters and them
  C) it was their responsibility to take charge of the postal service
  D) they wanted to eliminate this phenomenon
 
Passage 3
 
    Vancouver restaurants won't butt out if the smoking ban drags down business. The Restaurant and Foodservices Association of B.C. representing 4,000 businesses in the Lower Mainland retained a lawyer in case the restaurant industry gets burned by the bylaw that prohibits smoking in places where children are permitted while excluding pubs and nightclubs.
    "We have legal advice," said Earl Manning, executive director of the association. "If we have to we might take legal action. But we hope we don't have to and reason prevails. It's not a compromise at all. It creates and unlevel playing field in the hospitality industry and discriminates against restaurants."
    Predicting restaurant closures and job losses when enforcement goes into effect in May, 1996. Manning says smokers will simply take their business —and their friends—to pubs where you're allowed to smoke, eat and drink in the same place. And that could be as close as Richmond or the city of North Vancouver where councils voted against smoking bans in restaurants.
    Dr. John Blatherwick disagrees. Vancouver's medical health officer says the ratio of restaurants to pubs is at least 35 to one and that won't change significantly because of the smoking ban.
    "You're not going to get all the smokers cramming into one bar to eat their meals," argued Blatherwick.
    "I'd suggest he never worked in the restaurant industry," charged Manning in response. "Blatherwick is presumptuous in his projections of what will happen in the industry. He's not a restaurant owner. He doesn't understand how people like to eat, drink and smoke in the same place."
    Manning also wants to know why Blatherwick backed off from his total smoking ban for all public places including pubs and nightclubs.
    Blatherwick says city councilors and the public aren't comfortable with it right now. But that doesn't mean he won't come back to it in a few years when the public is adjusted to no smoking in places covered by this partial ban.
    No matter when the smoke clears, Vancouver councilor Nancy Chiavario —who supports the partial ban to minimize future health care costs for employees and customers — will be a tough sell for bars and restaurants. Because people go to bars and nightclubs to drink alcohol which is arguably an unhealthy thing to do in its own right. Chiavario says it's a contradiction to tell them they can't smoke.
 
9. The reason why pubs and nightclubs are not included in the smoking ban is probably that ______.
  A) people who go to these places are non-smokers
  B) children are not permitted in these places
  C) pubs and nightclubs owners need advantageous supports, or they will go bankrupt
  D) lawmakers are biased
10. From the first two paragraphs, what might happen if the smoking ban in restaurants takes effect?
  A) There will be a lawsuit.
  B) Restaurants will obey the law without protests.
  C) Pubs and nightclubs will get the upper hand of restaurants.
  D) People won't go to restaurants any more.
11. Dr. John Blatherwick doesn't think that the smoking ban in restaurants will have much bad effect on restaurant because ______.
  A) he knows nothing about the restaurant industry
  B) he doesn't like pubs and nightclubs
  C) he thinks the number of restaurants is far greater than that of pubs and nightclubs
  D) he thinks restaurants are more comfortable than pubs and nightclubs.
12. It can be inferred from the 7th and 8th paragraphs that ______.
  A) Blatherwick once advocated total smoking ban
  B) Blatherwick will back off from total smoking ban for good
  C) Blatherwick only advocates partial smoking ban
  D) Blatherwick is not confident about partial smoking ban
 
Passage 4
 
    The rise of "temp" work has further magnified the decreasing rights and alienation of the worker. It is common corporate practice to phase out full-time employees and hire temporary workers to take on more workload in less time. When facing a pressing deadline, a corporation may pay $15-$20 per hour for a temp worker, but the temp worker will only see $7 or $8 of that money. The rest goes to the temp agency, which is usually a corporate chain, such as Kelly Services, that blatantly makes its profits off of other people's labor. This increases profits of the corporations because they can increase a workload, get rid of the employee when they're finished, and not worry about paying benefits or unemployment for that employee. I have had to work with temps a few times in my current position, and the workers only want one thing —a full-time job with benefits. We really wanted to hire one temp I was working with, but we could not offer her a full-ti, me job because it would have been a breach in our contract with the temp agency that employed her. To hire a temp full-time, we would have had to pay the agency over a thousand dollars. Through this practice and policy, the temp agency locks its temporary workers into a horrible new form of servitude from which the worker cannot break free.
    Furthermore, corporate powers push workers to take on bigger workloads, work longer hours, and accept less benefits by instilling a paranoia in their workforce. The capitalist bosses assume dishonesty, disloyalty, and laziness amongst workers, and they breed a sense of guilt and fear through their assumptions. Where guilt doesn't seep in, bitterness, anger, and depression take over. The highest priorities of Big Business are to increase profits and limit liabilities. Personal relations and human needs are last on their list of priorities. So what we see is a huge mass of people who are alienated, disempowered, overworked, mentally and physically ill and who spend the vast majority of their time and energy on their basic survival. They are denied any chance to really "live," because they are forced to make profits for the capitalists in power.
 
13. Which of the following words can be used to replace "mangified" (linel. paragraph 1) without changing the original meaning of the sentence?
  A) expanded                            B) aggravated
  C) enlarged                             D) deteriorated
14. Which of the following can NOT be listed as a reason for corporations' hiring temporary workers and phasing out full-time employees?
  A) Corporations intend to leave more workload to temporary workers.
  B) Temp workers are generally well-trained and can achieve high efficiency.
  C) Corporations can reduce their production cost by employing temp workers.
  D) Corporations can benefit a great deal from keeping a small full-time work force.
15. According to the first paragraph, which statement is true?
  A) Temp workers seem to be satisfied with their conditions.
  B) Temp agencies have made it possible for temp workers.
  C) Temp workers are fairly paid by their agencies.
  D) It's difficult for temp workers to be employed as full-time workers.
16. The main purpose of the last paragraph is to ______.
  A) show how much the capitalist bosses distrust temp workers
  B) reveal that temp workers are living in misery
  C) arouse readers' hatred for the capitalists
  D) severely criticize the ignorance of the temp workers
 
Passage 5
 
    In April 1992 Cornelia Whitner was sentenced to eight years in prison for criminal child neglect. Her crime was that, while living in South Carolina, she had ingested crack cocaine during her pregnancy. Later, she gave birth to a healthy baby.
    South Carolina is the only state where a pregnant woman can be sent to prison for potentially harming a viable fetus. In 1996 the state supreme court decided that such fetuses were protected under the state's 1985 child-endangerment statutes. The 1973 decision of the United States Supreme Court, Roev Wade, goes nowhere near that for, It accepts that, in the third trimester of pregnancy, the state has a compelling interest in preserving the life of the unborn child; it therefore allows a state to forbid abortions. But it grants an exception where the life or health of the mother is at stake, and it does not give the fetus the rights of a living person.
    South Carolina's law also contradicts supreme courts in five states which have dismissed criminal charges against pregnant women whose behaviour harmed their fetuses. Most recently, in October, the Florida supreme court ruled that a pregnant unmarried teenager who shot herself in the abdomen was not guilty of murder. The court pointed out that American and English common law confers immunity on pregnant women who cause injury or death to their fetuses, although a third party may be prosecuted.
    In South Carolina, the "pregnancy police" are said to have arrested and charged dozens of pregnant drug-abusers during the past 18 months. Some have received prison terms; others have been put on probation. The state attorney-general, Charlie Condon, a man said to have his sights on higher office, takes most of the blame, or the credit, for the zeal of the police. "A viable fetus", he proclaims, "is a citizen and a fellow South Carolinian." In response to his critics, Mr Condon has now proposed an amnesty for women who agree to seek treatment; they would then be sent to prison only as a last resort. Police in some South Carolina counties, however, are continuing to make arrests.
    Annette Ruth Appell, an assistant professor in the University of South Carolina's School of Law, says the Whitner ruling also raises other issues. Should the state test all pregnant women, regardless of history, race of class, or should it confine itself to certain groups and, if so, which ones? Research has shown that black women are ten times more likely to be tested for prenatal drug use than white women; Ms Whitner herself is black. And which sorts of prenatal behaviour will the state regulate? Simply drugabuse, or smoking and drinking too?
    Opponents of the South Carolina law say that it disproportionately affects poor women; the doctors of well-to-do patients are much less likely to report cases of addiction. They strongly object to criminal penalties for-drug-addicted pregnant women, favouring rehabilitation instead. But there are few drug-rehabilitation centres in the state, and even fewer that will accept poor patients.
    Ms Whitner's case is expected to go to the United States Supreme Court in February. She herself, according to her lawyer, still has at least six months of prison to serve before she will be eligible for parole.
 
17. Opponents to the South Carolina law hold that ______.
  A) it makes large numbers of poor women suffer
  B) it affects rich women and poor women alike
  C) it does not rehabilitate drug-addicted pregnant women
  D) it is unconstitutional
18. Cornelia Whitner was sentenced to eight years in prison for ______.
  A) drug addiction
  B) potentially harming an unborn baby
  C) child abuse
  D) having killed a fetus
19. The 1973 decision of the US Supreme Court ______.
  A) regards the fetus as a living person
  B) allows the state to preserve the life of an unborn baby in the third trimester of pregnancy
  C) makes abortion absolutely illegal
  D) allows the state to prosecute women who cause injury or death to their fetuses
20. It can be inferred from this passage that South Carolina ______.
  A) has the harshest laws against pregnant women whose behavior harms their fetuses
  B) treats all pregnant women alike regardless of their race
  C) forbids pregnant women to do anything harmful to the fetus, including smoking and                       drinking.
  D) has the best protection for unborn babies.
 
Unit 13
 
Passage 1
 
    Tradition dies hard in the US Senate, where members still sit at desks on the Senate floor that come with inkwells and blotting sand, while two brass spittoons stand ready near the podium at the front of the room. The Senate has carefully preserved these relics, much as it seems determined to preserve the institution's more recent tradition of hostility toward computers and the Internet.
    In November, the Senate Rules Committee voted to deny a request by Senator Michael Enzi (R-Wyoming) for permission to use his laptop computer at his seat. Citing the Senate's overarching ban on the introduction of mechanical devices onto the floor, the Rules Committee reasoned that the sound of a tapping keyboard might distract other members from their august deliberative duties.
    The decision might have been a quaint sideshow, were it not for the fact that it served as a kind of overture for Senator Dan Coats (R-Indiana), who then introduced legislation to reimpose government censorship on the Internet. His bill, S 1482, represents the Senate's first real attempt to develop a successor to the failed Communications Decency Act, which was unanimously declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court last summer.
    Coats, a cosponsor of the original CDA, is on a mission to craft Net censorship legislation that can pass constitutional muster. He's gotten a boost from Senator John McCain (R-Arizona), who plans to hold hearings on "Internet decency" in February. Coats's bill, which targets only the Web — not email or chat rooms — would outlaw the commercial distribution of material that is "harmful to minors." Violators could face six months in jail and a US $ 50,000 fine.
    Civil libertarians are in an uproar. Ann Beeson, a lawyer with the American Civil Liberties Union, says, "The court would reject the Coats bill for the same reason it rejected the original CDA — because it criminalizes speech that is protected among adults." Coats's revived effort to censor the Internet may carry on a Senate tradition, but only at the expense of forgetting a lot of recent history.
 
1. What is the writer's attitude toward government censorship on the Internet?
  A) Approving.                             B) Opposing.
  C) Indifferent.                             D) Detached.
2. On what grounds did the Senate reject Michael Enzi's request to use a laptop computer?
  A) It was against the Senate's tradition.
  B) It violated the Senate's rules.
  C) The computer's noise interfered with others' deliberation.
  D) The computer was unnecessary to the performance of senators' duties.
3. On what grounds did the Supreme Court reject the Communications Decency Act?
  A) It violated citizens' constitutional right to free speech.
  B) It would do harm to the development of technology.
  C) It forgot a lot of recent history.
  D) It would hinder commercial distribution of information.
4. In what way is Coats' new bill different from the CDA?
  A) It does not punish adults.
  B) It deals with the Web only.
  C) It does not touch on free speech.
  D) It deals with commercial distribution of information only.
 
Passage 2
 
    Ecotourism is for those whose idea of fun is to sleep in a hut, carry their own rubbish and eat things that back home would be exterminated. But is it also for people who want to fly over a rainforest canopy before checking into a luxury hotel in the midst of a national park? Whatever ecotourism is, it is hot — perhaps too hot for its own good.
    The tourism business is notorious for its somewhat questionable statistics. The World Tourism Organisation claims that the industry looked after 592m travellers last year who spent $ 423 billion. Even if this pie is a little smaller than advertised, ecotourism seems to be the fastest-growing part of it. By the broadest measure (trips with some sort of nature or wilderness component), ecotourism already accounts for perhaps a third of these travellers On a stricter definition favoured by the Ecotourism Society, a Vermont-based group, it is "responsible travel that conserves natural environments and sustains the well-being of local people", which accounts for no more than 5% of tourism.
    Ecotourism is especially prominent in tourism's fastest-growing markets: southern Africa (which has attracted 18% more visits since 1990) and Latin America (which is up by 6%). It even dominates some markets. Kenya estimates that eight out of ten visitors come for the wildlife, as do most of Costa Rica's; these countries, along with Australia, are widely regarded as world leaders in ecotourism.
    Ideally, ecotourism helps both people and nature. Until civil war intervened, Rwanda's Mountain Gorilla Project was one such model. Visits to the gorillas were rationed; local guides ensured good behaviour on the part of the humans, and the hefty admission charge — &170 a day — paid for salaries and habitat preservation. As this made the gorillas worth more alive than dead, poaching decreased.
 
5. The central idea of the first paragraph is ______.
  A) increasing popularity of ecotourism
  B) the definition of ecotourism
  C) the advantages of ecotourism
  D) rainforest and ecotourism
6. We can infer from the second paragraph that ______.
  A) statistics provided by the tourism industry are not reliable
  B) the tourism industry often exaggerates its business
  C) tourism is the fastest-growing industry
  D) there are great opportunities in the tourism industry
7. By a loose definition, ecotourism refers to ______.
  A) travel that conserves natural environments
  B) travel that do good to the well-being of the local people
  C) travel that includes some excursion into nature or wilderness
  D) travel to a national park or a rainforest
8. Rwanda's Mountain Gorilla project is cited in the passage as an example of ______.
  A) good ecotourism management
  B) the rapid increase in ecotourism
  C) the big profits reaped from ecotourism
  D) responsible behavior on the part of ecotourists
 
Passage 3
 
    Tasccaic Barner is being wooed by UCLA, but she has other suitors. An additional four schools are vying for her attention, and as the May 1 decision day approaches, it seems as if her phone never stops ringing. The mail brings invitations to campus visits and parties. And then there's the cash, including a $ 20,000 scholarship, "I feel special," she beams, "like I'm among the elite." Is Barner a violin prodigy or an Olympic skater? No. Barner is black, and she has a 4.0 grade-point average. In California these days, that makes her a valuable commodity.
    This spring has been a trying one for educators. The University of California campuses accepted 18 percent fewer black students and 7 percent fewer Hispanics than last year. That's nothing compared with what's happened at the most selective campuses. At Berkeley, 66 percent fewer black students were accepted, along with 52.6 percent fewer Hispanics, raising the specter of an almost entirely white and Asian campus.
    The panic may be premature. After all, every black and Hispanic student with a rank in the top 12.5 percent of the high-school class — has been admitted. But with race now excluded as a factor, they're a lot less likely to walk onto the campus of their own choice. So while top school like Berkeley and UCLA are trying hard to keep their minority enrollment close to its current level, less selective campuses at Santa Cruz and Riverside actually expect to enroll more minority students. Proponents of the new system insist that this is better than having students at schools they aren't qualified to attend. "I've seen the doubt in their eyes," says Ward Connerby. "I've seen the students trying to figure out whether they got in on their own. Now they can walk on those campuses with their heads high."
    Some minority students agree. "I'm proud I did it on my own," says Esmerelda Olivares, who's headed for Santa Cruz. But administrators worry that minority students who might have chosen state schools will now think the UC system doesn't value diversity. And they fear that students who don't get into Berkeley or UCLA are more likely to choose a private school that another UC campus. "It could be like the 1950s and 1960s when seeing a black student on campus was a cause for celebration," says professor Saragoza.
 
9. What made Tasceaie Barner feel special?
  A) She had obtained a valuable commodity.
  B) She had many young suitors vying for her attention.
  C) She was going to compete in the Olympic Games.
  D) Several universities are ready to give her admission.
10. What is likely to happen with the new system of college enrollment in place?
  A) Racial discrimination may revive.
  B) Enrollment of minority students in universities will drop.
  C) Top universities will have difficulty enrolling black and Hispanic students.
  D) The University of California campuses will no longer value diversity.
11. We can infer from the passage that before the new system of enrollment was installed in California, being black was ______.
  A) a disadvantage                           B) an advantage
  C) a guarantee of admission                   D) a cause for discrimination
12. Proponents of the new system hold that ______.
  A) all students should be admitted on their own merits
  B) black students should get preferential treatment
  C) public schools should admit more minority students
  D) top universities have to need for diversity
Passage 4
 
    On Thursday American Airlines and US Airways announced an alliance to pool their frequent-flier programs, giving customers added incentives to fly one another's skies. Then on Friday Delta and United delivered word of a sort-of-but-not-quite coupling. These deals thrust the much-scrutinized airline industry even more into the public spotlight. Airline profits are at record highs. Business fares are climbing into the stratosphere, up 16 percent last year alone. Now comes the consolidation sweeping the industry. The question is whether these deals will mean more choice and more convenience, as the airlines argue, or less competition or even higher prices.
    Clearly consumers can benefit from these tie-ups. Passengers flying American or US Airways, for instance, can now use either carrier's network of 72 worldwide clubs and lounges. They can combine their frequent-flier awards, allowing them not only to build up redeemable miles more quickly but also cash them in to more destinations. American can plug into US Airways' deeper web of connections up and down the Eastern Seaboard; US Airways, with fewer routes to South America, the Caribbeari and Europe, will be able to offer a greater array of international flights. In time, American and US Airways hope to create the more ambitious partnership -- a so-called code-sharing agreement that would allow the two carriers to coordinate flight schedules without entering a full-fledged merger. The goal is "seamless service" -- without having to change airlines.
    Price is a wild card in these alliances. Consumer groups worry that they will reduce competition, translating in turn into higher fares. They could be right. Given the rapid trend toward consolidation, many analysts foresee a day when most major "hub" airports will be dominated by a single airline or consortium. A report last year by the General Accounting Office found that ticket prices, in such cases, ranged from 45 to 65 percent higher than at cities where two or more carriers competed. And just last week the Transportation Department announced it was investigating allegations of price-fixing by the major airlines -- aimed at keeping smaller discount-carriers from intruding on their turf -- and the Justice Department has begun similar probes. The message? Airlines may yearn to merge -- but winning approval from skeptical authorities might be tougher than they expect.
 
13.Judging from the passage, the frequent-flier program is one by which ________.
   A) people who have built up a certain number of flying miles with an airline will get a free ticket.
   B) people who fly an airline frequently will get a discount
   C) people who have built up a certain number of flying miles with an airline will get a cash award
   D) people who fly an airline frequently will get extra service
14. according to this passage, the federal government's attitude towards airline mergers is one of _______
   A) encouragement                 B) restriction
   C) prohibition                    D) approval
15. The expression "a wild card" in the last paragraph most probably means ________.
   A) a chief concrn                 B) an important factor
   C) an unpredictable element         D) a necessary consequence
16. Which of the following statements is true?
   A) Airline mergers will give rise to intense competition.
   B) Consumers benefit from airline mergers.
   C) Tie-ups between airlines seem to draw little public attention.
   D) Ticket prices tend to be higher where there is only one carrier.
 
Passage 5
 
    A decade ago Susic Makinster learned she might have a liver problem. Her doctors told her not to worry. So she didn't -- until three years ago, when she was astonished to learn she had tested positive for hepatitis (肝炎) C, a blood-borne virus she had never heard of. Makinster, then 45, had been living with an infection that would likely stay with her for life and that could eventually destroy her liver and cause her death. Yet she had no idea how or when she had contracted the virus.
    Hepatitis C wasn't even discovered until 1989. Today an estimated 3.9 million Americans are infected, and most of them still don's know it. Like HIV, hepatitis C is a slowacting virus that can be transmitted by shared needles and blood transfusions. But it is far more rampant. There is no vaccine to prevent its spread, and no reliable treatment. Some 75 percent of people who contract the virus will carry it for life; 20 percent will develop cirrhosis of the liver. Hepatitis C is now the nation's leading reason for liver transplantation, and the second leading cause of cirrhosis (after alcohol). It will kill roughly 10,000 Americans this year -- and that number is expected to triple over the next two decades, as more past infections come to light. Says Surgeon General David Satcher, "This is a major public health crisis."
    Until treatment is less hit-or-miss, living with hepatitis C will be a matter of accommodation. Though most people who contracted the virus become chronically infected, many never develop advanced liver disease. That's partly luck, but not entirely. Giving up alcohol brightens the prognosis, and many sufferers tout the benefits of reducing stress and getting more rest. Getting vaccinated against hepatitis a and B is also a good idea, since a dual infection can aggravate the disease. And preventing further spread requires some precautions. Experts are divided on the need to practise safe sex, since the virus is normally only in the blood. But they stress the importance of covering open wounds and not sharing razors and toothbrushes.
 
17. According to the passage, the leading cause for liver cirrhosis is _______.
   A) too much drinking           B) hepatitis C
   C) hepatitis A                 D) hepatitis B
18. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
   A) No one who contracts hepatitis C can hope to live long.
   B) More people have contracted hepatitis C than HIV.
   C) Alcohol is the chief cause for hepatitis C.
   D) Hepatitis C is sexually transmitted.
19. The number of people who will die of hepatitis C in twenty years will be ______.
   A) 20,000           B) 10,000
   C) 30,000           D) 40,000
20. The word "accommodation" in the last paragraph most probably means _______.
   A) care               B) treatment
   C) rest               D) adjustment
 
Unit 14
Passage 1
 
    New and bizarre crimes have come into being with the advent of computer technology. Organized crime too has been directly involved; the new technology offers it unlimited opportunities, such as data crimes, theft of sevices, property-related crimes, industrial sabotage, politically related sabotage, vandalism, crimes against the individual and financially related crimes. . .
    Theft of data, or data crime, has attracted the interest of organized criminal syndicates. This is usually the theft or copying of valuable computer program. An international market already exists for computerized data, and specialized fences are said to be playing a key role in this rapidly expanding criminal market. buyers for stolen programs may range from a firm's competitors to foreign nations.
    A competitor sabotages a company's computer system to destroy or cripple the firm's operational ability, thus neutralizing its competitive capability either in the private or the government sector. This computer sabotage may also be tied to an attempt by affluent investors to acquire the victim firm. With the growing reliance by firms on computers for their recordkeeping and daily operations, sabotage of their computers can result in internal havoc, after which the group interested in acquiring the firm can easily buy it at a substantially lower price. Criminal groups could also resort to sabotage if the company is a competitor of a business owned or controlled by organized crime.
    Politically motivated sabotage is on the increase; political extremist groups have sprouted on every continent. Sophisticated computer technology arms these groups with awesome powers and opens technologically advanced nations to their attack. Several attempts have already been made to destroy computer facility at an air force base. A university computer facility involved in national defence work suffered more than $ 2 million in damages as a result of a bombing.
    Computer vulnerability has been amply documented. One congressional study concluded that neither government nor private computer systems are adequately protected against sabotage. Organized criminal syndicates have shown their willingness to work with politically motivated groups. Investigators have uncovered evidence of cooperation between criminal groups and foreign governments in narcotics. Criminal groups have taken attempts in assassinating political leaders. . . . Computers are used in hospital life-support system, in laboratories, and in major surgery. Criminals could easily turn these computers into tools of devastation. By sabotaging the computer of a life-support system, criminals could kill an individual as easily as they had used a gun. By manipulating a computer, they could guide awesome tools of terror against large urban centres. cities and nations could become hostages. Homicide could take a new form. The computer may become the hit man of the twentieth century.
    The computer opens vast areas of crime to organized criminal groups, both national and international. It calls on them to pool their resources and increase their cooperative efforts, because many of these crimes are to complex for one group to handle, especially those requiring a vase network of fences. Although criminals have adapted to computer technology, law enforcement has not. Many still think in terms of traditional criminology.
 
1. How many kinds of crimes are mentioned in the passage?
   A) 7.    B) 8.    C) 9.    D) 10.
2. What is the purpose of a competitor to sabotage a company's computer?
   A) His purpose is to destroy or weaken the firm's operational ability.
   B) His purpose is to weaken firm's competitive capability and get it.
   C) His purpose is to buy the rival's company at a relatively low price.
   D) His purpose is to steal important data.
3. Which of the following can be labelled as a politically motivated sabotage of a computer system?
   A) Sabotage of a university computer.
   B) Sabotage of a hospital computer.
   C) Sabotage of computer at a secret training base.
   D) Sabotage of a factory computer.
4. What does the author mean by "Homicide could take a new form"?
   A) There is no need to use a gun in killing a person.
   B) criminals can kill whoever they want by a computer.
   C) The computer can replace any weapons.
   D) The function of a computer is just like a gun.
 
Passage 2
 
    The banking revolution in America is as much about attitudes and assumptions as about size and structure. For centuries, Americans have distrusted banks. In the 1930s, Andrew Jackson denounced and destroyed the Second Bank of the United States, which existed "to make the rich richer" at the expense of "farmers, mechanics and laborers." In the 1930s, banks were blamed for helping cause the Depression. The wonder, then, is that the latest wave of bank mergers -- the largest ever -- has inspired little more than a bewildered and, perhaps, irritated shrug from the public.
    As banks grow bigger, they seem less fearsome. Why? The answer is that banks have shrunk in power even as they have expanded in size. Traditionally, banking has been a simple business. Deposits come through one door, loans go out through another. Profits derive from the "spread" between interest rates on deposits and loans. If savers and borrowers cannot go elsewhere, banks are powerful. And if there are other choices, banks are less powerful. And so it is.
   We inhabit an age of superabundant credit and its purveyors. A century ago, matters were different. Small depositors could choose from only one or several local banks; getting a loan meant winning the good graces of the neighborhood banker. Even big corporations depended on a few big banks or investment houses.
    John Reed or Hugh McColl -- the heads of Citicorp and Nations Bank -- are not household names. In 1990, J. P. Morgan was. As head of J. P. Morgan & Co., he controlled through stock and positions on corporate boards -- a third of U.S. railroads and 70 percent or the steel industry. A railroad executive once cheerfully confessed his dependence on Morgan's capital: "If Mr. Morgan were to order me tomorrow to China or Siberia. . . I would go."
   No bankers today inspires such awe or fear. Time, technology and government restrictions weakened bank power. In the 1920s, auto companies popularized car loans. National credit cards originated in 1950 with the Dinners Club care. In 1933, the Glass-Steagal Act required banks and their investment houses to split. After World War II, pensions and the stock market competed for consumer saving. As a result, banks command a shrinking share of the nation's wealth: 20 percent of assets of financial institutions in 1997, down from 50 percent in 1950.
 
5. Why are John Reed and Hugh McColl not as well-known as J.P. Morgan?
   A) John Reed and Hugh McColl are not as rich as J.P. Morgan was.
   B) Banks are no longer as powerful as they were in J.P. Morgan's time.
   C) John Reed and Hugh McColl are not as capable as J.P. Morgan was.
   D) The banks John Reed and Hugh McColl head are smaller than Morgan's.
6. The word "spread" in Paragraph 2 most probably means_______.
   A) cover     B) extent     C) difference       D) degree
7. Which of the following statements is true?
   A) The recent bank mergers have given much shock to the nation.
   B) People no longer distrust banks.
   C) No bank today can compare with J.P. Morgan's in size.
   D) It is easier to borrow money today than it was in this past.
8. What does the author chiefly talk about in the passage?
   A) Banking and investment.
   B) The credit market.
   C) The evolution of the banks.
   D) The shrinking power of the banks.
 
Passage 3
 
    Brisk, cheerful and passionate about educating children, Nancy lchinaga thinks social promotion is "junk." As principal of an elementary school for the past 23 years, Ichinaga has never passed kids on to the next grade just to protect their self-esteem. The school is 51 percent African-American, 48 percent Latino and 75 percent below the poverty line. But last year, 88 percent of its students read at or above grade level, and Ichinaga thinks her willingness to hold kids back has much to do with that success. "We don't promote so students can fail," she says. "We make sure that they succeed. Our students self-esteem is good because they're successful academically, not because we've tried to pump them up."
   Social promotion has been widespread in US school for at least 20 years. Its rationale is to avoid damaging the pupil's sense of self-worth and to assume that if promoted, the child can catch up. But school officials and politicians are increasingly ready to accept what traditionalists like Ichinaga have been saying all along -- that social promotion, though well intended, has been as academic disaster. Bill Clinton is on record against it, as is the American Federation of Teachers. In New York City, schools chancellor Rudy Crew recently unveiled a plan to phase it out. He told a reporter, "This is not about being punitive with kids. It is about caring so much about children that you will not let them fail."
    To live up to that rhetoric, Crew and other reformers urgently need to show that kids who fail will get the academic support they need. The model could be the Chicago public school system, which abolished social promotion in 1996. Kids who fail are sent to summer school, where they get a second chance to pass. Most succeed and those who don't are assigned to smaller classes and evaluated for leaning disabilities and other special need.
    The scary part is just how widespread social promotion has become. In New York, Crew estimated that more that a third of all fourth-and seventh-grades would have to repeat a year if the policy were ended immediately. Though Crew didn't say so, there is no reason to think the percentage is different for other grades -- which is why the practice arguably conceals massive failure. And nobody gains from that.
 
9. What does "social promotion" mean in this passage?
   A) Promotion of social progress.
   B) Passing students who fail to the next grade.
   C) Giving praise to students for encouragement.
   D) Sending students who fail to a summer school.
10. According to traditionalists like Nancy Ichinaga, social promotion will _______.
   A) encourage students to catch up
   B) help boost students' self-esteem
   C) lead to massive failure in education
   D) contribute to academic success
11. If social promotion is ended immediately in New York, how many students will have to repeat a year?
   A) 12 percent of the total.           B) One quarter of the total.
   C) One seventh of the total.          D) Over a third of the total.
12. What do students urgently need in order to succeed?
   A) Academic support.             B) Smaller classes.
   C) Summer schools.              D) More special education experts.
 
Passage 4
 
    Perhaps never has the mood of a decade reversed itself so totally. The 1980s began with the worst U.S. inflation in 60 years and a deepening dread of nuclear destruction. As they closed, inflation was negligible, the Berlin Wall was tumbling down, and the Soviet empire was dissolving.
    The road between was hardly a smooth climb. Ronald Reagan gave the U.S. a heady draft of optimism while reversing the direction of government policy, recasting social programs and cutting taxes. Unmatched by spending reductions, however, those cuts sent deficits soaring to unheard-of highs, and the double-digit inflation of 1980 was cured only by double-digit unemployment in 1982.
    The economy revived, but an outsize share of the benefits seemed to flow to Wall Street. But unlike in the irrationally exuberant 1920s, disaster did not strike. Though stock fell even faster on October 19, 1987, than they had in 1929, they bounced back higher than ever, setting the stage for what could soon become the longest period of economic expansion in history. Something fundamental had happened to the boom-and-bust cycle that had charted the century.
    Beneath the surface, though, the alignment of forces was shifting. Reagan's heavy military build-up were putting heavy pressure on the Soviet Union to keep up. Moscow was vulnerable because the Soviet economy was decaying badly, and its leadership was nearly paralyzed. Only in 1985, after three Kremlin funerals in three years, did a leader, mikhail Gorbachev, emerge who was realistic and vigorous enough to attempt drastic reforms.
    In a series of summits, Gorbachev and Reagan brought about a de-escalation of the arms race, which the Soviet leader realized was swallowing more resources than he could afford. The European satellites were too, so Gorbachev told their chiefs that Soviet tanks would no longer keep them in power. That started a chain reaction. By the end of 1989, the Soviet bloc had dissolved. Even then nobody would have guessed that in another two years, the soviet Union itself would shatter into 15 pieces. But it was already obvious that the world was entering a strange new era; only one superpower; no cold war.
 
13. The mood of Americans at the beginning of the 1980s was _______.
   A) changeable           B) optimistic
   C) gloomy              D) calm
14. We can infer from the passage that during Ronald Reagan's presidency the poor ________.
   A) had more job opportunities      B) received more care than before
   C) paid less taxes                D) received less benefits than before
15. According to the passage, why did Gorbachev start negotiations with Reagan to reduce arms?
   A) He wanted to start a chain reaction in East Europe.
   B) The burden of arms race was too heavy for the Soviet Union.
   C) He wanted to end the cold war
   D) He realized only drastic reforms could save the Soviet Union.
16. Which of the following might be the best title for this passage?
   A) Reagan: An Optimistic President
   B) Historical Shift in the 1980s
   C) Gorbachev: A Realist and Vigorous Leader
   D) The Dissolution of the Soviet Bloc
 
Passage 5
 
    Things have really changed. Not only is the military standing tall again, it is staging a remarkable comeback in the quantity and quality of the recruits it is attracting. Recruiters, once denounced by antiwar students as "baby killers" and barred from campuses, are welcomed even at elite universities. ROTC (Reserve Officer's Training Corps) programs that faltered during the Viet Nam era, when protesters were fire bombing their headquarters, are flourishing again. The military academies are enjoying a steady increase in applications.
    Certainly, the depressed economy has increased the allure of the jobs, technical training and generous student loans offered by the military. Students know that if they go in and become, say, nuclear weapons specialists, they can come out and demand a salary of $ 60,000 a year. Military salaries, while not always competitive with those paid for comparable jobs in the private sector, are more than respectable, especially considering the wide array of benefits that are available: free medical service, room and board, and PX (Post Exchange) privileges. Monthly pay for a recruit is $ 574; for a sergeant with four years services it is $ 906; for a major with ten years" service it is $2,305. The services' slick $ 175 million-a-year advertising campaign promising adventure and fulfillment has helped win over the TV generation. Kids are walking down the school hallways chanting 'Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines,' just like in the commercials. And many military officials feel that the key difference is the enhanced patriotism among the nation's youth. There is a return to the view that the military is an honorable profession. The quality is going up at an astonishing rate. The new kids are easy to train. The days of a judge telling a miscreant to join the army or go to jail are over. Recruiting for all four services combined is running at 101% of authorized goals. And the retention rate is now so high, that the services are refusing some re-enlistment applications and reducing annual recruiting target.
    The military academies are also enjoying halcyon years, attacting more and better-qualified students. Compared to private colleges, where tuition and expenses have been climbing sharply, the service schools are a real bargain: not only is tuition free, but recruits get allowances of up to $ 500 a month. It is reported that 12,300 applicants are for the 1,450 positions in this year's freshman class. Military academies are now just as selective as any of the best universities in the country.
    Nationwide, ROTC enrollment exceeds 105,000, a 64% increase over the 1974 figure. In the mid-70s, the ROTC students refused to wear their uniforms on campus because they suffered all sorts of ridicule, if they did. Now if they wear them to class no one looks at them twice. To them, Viet Nam is ancient history, something the old folks talk about.
 
17. What is the main idea of this passage?
   A) The Military is in.           B) The Military is up-
   C) The Military is down.        D) The Military is on.
18. What was the attitude of the students in 1970's towards the military?
   A) Approval.             B) Indifferent.
   C) Distaste.              D) Scolding.
19. The phrase "come out" is closest in meaning to ______.
    A) "become visible"               B) "begin to grow"
    C) "be made public"               D) "gain a certain position"
20. Which one of the following is NOT mentioned as a reason to attract students?
    A) Free tuition.                   B) Spacious rooms.
    C) Considerable allowance          D) Technical training.
 
Unit 15
 
Passage 1
 
    The term "Industrial Revolution" describes the process of economic change from a stable agricultural and commercial society to the modern industrial society which is dependent on the use of machinery rather than hand tools. While the process was historically a gradual one and not the sudden change which the word "revolution" suggests, the economic, social, and political results were indeed revolutionary.
    Basically, it meant the change from hand , work to machine power —— made possible by the use of steam for power through the perfection of the improved steam engine of James Watt in 1769, which made Thomas Newcomen's invention of 1708 practical for industrial use. The domestic system of production (goods produced in many homes and gathered for sale by a middleman) was replaced by the factory system. Coupled with the technological England, were the equally significant technological improvements in agriculture.
    Historically, the first stage of the Industrial Revolution began slowly about 1960, gathered momentum (冲量)after 1815, and extended into the 1870s, with the main source of power being the stream engine. Profits for the capitalists came from the manufacturing process itself, in contrast to the Commercial Revolution when profits had come chiefly from the transportation of goods. Coal replaced wood as fuel, and iron machines replaced wooden machines.
    Later, the second stage of the Industrial Revolution set in during the 1870s and extended to 1914 ——brought about by a new source of power, electricity, from Michael Faraday's dynamo (发电机)of 1831. Characteristic of this stage was the adoption of mass production techniques and the development of finance capitalism, with profits derived from the investment of finance capital rather than from the manufacturing process alone, as in the formation of the United States Steel Corporation in 1901. It was in this second stage that the swift industrialization and urbanization of western Europe and the United States took place.
    The Industrial Revolution soon carried the middle class to political and economic power —— and at the same time created the greatest threat to capitalism, the rise of the proletariat (无产阶级).
 
1. What can we infer from the author's discussion of economic change?
    A) Previous to 1760 to significant economic changes had occurred in England.
    B) It is difficult to name the type of change associated with the Industrial Revolution.
    C) The term revolution may refer to the results rather than suddenness of change.
    D) Social and political change is a separate phenomenon from economic change.
2. The author would probably agree that a "revolutionary" economic change __________.
    A) replaces one dominant system of production with another
    B) is not recognizable until long after it has occurred
    C) is not likely to occur in the near future
    D) is presently threatened by the rise of the proletariat
3. According to the passage, the United Stated Steel Corporation is an example of ___________.
    A) a company of the type that no one could have predicted during the first stage of the Industrial Revolution
    B) a company which profited not only by selling what it manufactured but by investments as well
    C) a company that represents at its most advanced the modern factory system
    D) a company that set its sights on the industrialization of western Europe.
4. Which of the following is a generalization supported by the information in the passage?
    A) Since the 18th century, economic change has been characterized by the development of new sources of profit.
    B) The Industrial Revolution did not significantly affect social life until the 20th century.
    C) At the end of the first stage of the Industrial Revolution, the American standard of living was remarkably high.
    D) Unlike steam power and electric power, atomic power has not had economic effects.
 
Passage 2
 
    Real policemen, both in Britain and the United States, hardly recognise any resemblance between their lives and what they see on TV —— if they ever get home in time. There are similarities, of course, but the cops don't think much of them.
    The first difference is that a policeman's real life revolves round the law. Most of his training is in criminal law. He has to know exactly what actions are crimes and what evidence can be used to prove them in court. He has to know nearly as much law as a professional lawyer, and what is more, he has to apply is on his feet, in the dark and rain, running down an alley after someone he wants to talk to.
    Little of his time is spent in chatting to scantily-clad ladies or in dramatic confrontations with desperate criminals. He will spend most his working life typing millions of words on thousands of forms about hundreds of sad, unimportant people who are guilty —— or not —— of stupid, petty crimes.
    Most television crime drama is about finding the criminal: as soon as he's arrested, the story is over. In real life, finding criminals is seldom much of a problem. Except in very serious cases like murders and terrorist attacks —— where failure to produce results on the standing of the police —— little effort is spent on searching. The police have an elaborate machinery which eventually shows up most wanted men.
    Having made an arrest, a detective really starts to work.He has to prove his case in court and to do that he often has to gather a lot of different evidence. Much of this has to be given by people who don't want to get involved in a court case. So, as well as being over-worded, a detective has to be out at all hours of the day and night interviewing his witnesses and pursuading them, usually against their own best interests, to help him.
    A third big difference between the drama detective and the real one is the unpleasant moral twilight in which the real one lives. Detectives are subject to two opposing pressures: first, as members of a police force they always have to behave with absolute legality; secondly, as expensive public servants they have to get results. They can hardly ever do both. Most of the time some of them have to break the rules in small ways.
    If the detective has to deceive the world, the world often deceives him. Hardly anyone he meets tells him the truth. And this separation the detective feels between himself and the rest of the world is deepened by the simple-mindedness —— as he sees it —— of citizens, social workers, doctors, law-makers,and judges, who, instead of stamping out crime, punish the criminals less severely in the hope that this will make them reform. The result, detectives feel, is that nine-tenths of their work is re-catching people who should have stayed behind bars. This makes them rather cynical.
 
5. It is essential for a policeman to be trained in criminal law _________.
    A) so that he can catch criminals in the streets
    B) because many of the criminals he has to catch are dangerous
    C) so that he can justify his arrests in court
    D) because he has to know nearly as much about law as a professional lawyer
6. When murders and terrorist attacks occur the police _________.
    A) prefer to wait for the criminal to give himself away
    B) spend a lot of effort on trying to track down their man
    C) try to make a quick arrest in order to keep up their reputation
    D) usually fail to produce results
7. The real detective lives in an unpleasant moral twilight because __________.
    A) he is an expensive public servant
    B) he must always behave with absolute legality
    C) he is obliged to break the law in order to preserve it
    D) he feels himself to be cut off from the rest of the world.
8. Detectives are rather cynical because ___________.
    A) nine-tenths of their work involves arresting people
    B) hardly anyone tells them the truth
    C) society does not punish criminals severely enough
    D) too many criminals escape from jail
 
Passage 3
 
    It would be difficult today to name as many as a dozen practising essayists in this country; a half dozen would be nearer to the mark. We have article writers, novelists, poets by the thousands, but only a handful of professional writers devoted to one of the oldest of literary forms, and still, potentially at least, one of the most delightful and rewarding to read. From the time of Montaigne, who fathered it, the essay has roots in personality; the day may not be too far distant when articles can be produced by supermachines, and, indeed, many of them already have that flavor, for the article needs to be little more than a collection and arrangement of facts, preceded perhaps by statement of an argument for or against what the facts present. But the essay is product of a ruminative mind, and its value depends not upon the weight of the facts collected (it may not collect any), but upon the character and quality of that mind —— its insights, its attitudes, its sharpness, its imagination. It can take off from the most trivial incident or observation and end in the highest heaven.
    Why has the essay become less popular? Most magazine editors think that the essay is a form out of date, that it has no place in our world. Of facts we have so much and we have not yet digested those of which we are already in possession. Our need is not so much for the acquisition of more as for reflection upon those we have; not so much for arguments based upon as for reflection on what they suggest and what they mean. For modern man, the acquistition of facts is like a habit-forming drug; the more he takes, the more he wants. Like the drug, they eventually strike him down. There are few magazines left in which an essay can find publication, though there is an abundant marker for factual pieces and for critical analyses, which ask for higher prices. Yet neither is comparable to a first-rate essay. Still, writers, like butchers, must pay their bills.
 
9. The title below that best expresses the main idea of this passage is __________.
    A) The Faults of the Essay               B) The Status of the Essay
    C) More Fact than Fiction                D) Characteristics of the Essay
10. The tone of the passage suggests that he author has the feeling of ________.
    A) optimism                           B) regret
    C) anger                              D) pride
11. The essay is declining, the author believes, because ____________.
    A) man is becoming less of a thinker
    B) man is becoming too idea-conscious
    C) society is becoming too impersonal
    D) it is out of date
12. As used in Paragraph I, the word "ruminative" most nearly means __________.
    A) acquisitive                          B) fact-conscious
    C) scientific                           D) thoughtful
 
Passage 4
 
    If the pigeon has a theme song, it is "Home Sweet Home". Pigeons are useful to men because of their intense love of their home. They are determined to return to it against all odds. A pigeon will not take a message to just place —— the receiving station must be home.
    From 3000 B. C. to the present, homing pigeons have worked as postmen. They have been especially useful for carrying messages in times of war. In 1870, when the Germans lay siege to the city of Paris, the city was cut off from all the usual of communication. The people tried many different ways of sending news. One way was to release small balloons carrying mail. But of course they merely drifted where the wind carried them. Often they landed inside the enemy lines. Evan balloons large enough to carry a pilot as well as the mail were not much better controlled.
    There were many suggestions also as to how to solve the problem. Someone suggested that four eagles be harnessed to a balloom carrying a man and mail. The eagles would provide motor power. The pilot would have a long pole with a piece of raw meat fastened to the end of it. He would dangle the meat just ahead of the eagle —— and then east or west, north or south, the eagles would fly whichever way the meat pointed. It seems a pity that this method was never tried. It would be extremely interesting to know what happened!
    It was not the eagle but a far different bird that in the end solved the problem, Somehow homing pigeons were brought into Paris. Soon they were carrying far and wide. The Germans found out about it and imported hawks to catch the pigeons, but the plucky little postmen could fly faster than the hawks, and they managed to escape their pursuers. In four months about 156,000 dispatches were carried by pigeons.
    A special method of photography, called microphotography, was used. By this method, men could reduce writing to miniature size. Then one bird could carry thousands of dispatches on one trip, When the dispatch was received, it was enlarged by photography so that it once more became possible for the human eye to read it.
 
13. They way the author describes the balloon by eagles makes us think that they _______.
    A) think it might have worked             B) Think it a ridiculous plan
    C) know how the plan really worked        D) can train eagles to do the job
14. During the siege of Paris, the pigeons were brought into the city by __________.
    A) their own power                      B) piloted balloons
    C) an unidentified means                  D) train
15. Microphotography was used to ___________.
    A) make thousands of copies of a dispatch
    B) reduce writing to miniature size
    C) decode enemy messages
    D) replace writing
16. The best title for this passage is __________.
    A) Microphotogrophy was used as a method of photography
    B) Eagles were once used to send messages
    C) Pigeons are useful to man
    D) Postmen with Feathers
 
Passage 5
 
    The age at which young children begin to make moral discriminations about harmful actions committed against themselves or others has been the focus of recent research into the moral development of children. Until recently child psychologists supported pioneer developmentalist Jean Piaget in his hypothesis that because of their immaturity, children under age seven do not take into account the intentions of a person committing accidental or deliberate harm, but rather simply assign punishment for transgressions on the basis of the magnitude of the negative consequences caused. According to Piaget, children under seven occupy the first stage of moral development, which is characterized by moral absolutism (rules made by authorities must be obeyed) and imminent justice (if rules are broken, punishment will be meted out). Until young children mature, their moral judgement are based entirely on the effect rather than the cause of a transgression. However, in recent research, Keasey found that six-year-old children not only distinguish between accidental and intentional harm, but also judge intentional harm as naughtier, regardless of the amount of damage produced. Both of these findings seem to indicate that children, at an earlier age than Piaget claimed, advance into the second stage of moral development, moral autonomy, in which they accept social rules but view them as more arbitrary than do children in the first stage.
    Keasey's research raises two key questions for developmental psychologists about children under age seven: do they recognize justifications for harmful actions, and do they make distinctions between harmful acts that are preventable and those acts that have unforeseen harmul consequences? Studies indicate that justifications excusing harmful actions might include public duty, self-defense, and provocation. For example, Nesdale and Rule concluded that children were capable of considering whether or not an aggressor's action was justified by public duty: five years olds reacted very differently to "bonnie wrecks Ann's pretend house" depending on whether Bonnie did it "so somebody won't fall over it" or because Bonnie wanted "to make Ann fell bad." Thus, a child of five begins to understand that certain harmful actions, though intentional, can be justified; the constraints of moral absolutism no longer solely guide their judgements.
    Psychologists have determined that during kindergarten children learn to make subtle distinctions involving unintentional harm. Darley observed that among acts involing unintentional harm, six-year-old children entering kindergarten could not differentiate between foreseeable, and thus preventable, harm and unforeseeable harm for which the perpetrator cannot be blamed. Seven months later, however, Darley found that these same children could make both distinctions, thus demonstrating that they had become morally autonomous.
 
17. Which of the following best describes the passage as a whole?
    A) An outline for future research.
    B) An analysis of a dispute between two theories.
    C) A confirmation of an established authority's theory.
    D) A discussion of research finding in an ongoing inquiry.
18. Piaget and Keasey would not agree on which of the following points?
    A) The kinds of excuses children give for harmful acts they commit.
    B) The age at which children begin to discriminate between intentional and unintentional harm.
    C) The intention children have in perpetrating harm.
    D) The circumstances under which children punish harmful acts.
19. Which of the following is the meaning of the world "public duty" in paragraph 2?
    A) The necessity to apprehend perpetrators.
    B) The responsibility to punish transgressors.
    C) An obligation to prevent harm to another.
    D) The assignment of punishment for harmful action.
20. Which of the following about five-year-old children does the research of Nesdale and Rule suggest?
    A) They take into account the motivations of actions when judging the behavior of other children.
    B) They, as perpetrators of harmful acts, disregard the feeling of the children they harm.
    C) They view public duty as a justification for accidental, but not intentional, harm.
    D) They justify and action that protects them from harm.
 
Unit 16
 
Passage 1
 
    There was no Churchillism, no Heathism, no Callaghanism, Margaret Thatcher is the only prime minister to have had her own "ism". But what really is Thatcherism? Has it been a consistent ideology or merely household budgeting on a national scale? Does it amount to a philosophy or is it just one woman's political style?
    Certainly, she has made her party more ideological. Lord Hailsham of St Marylebone once said:" Conservatives do not believe that political struggle is the most important thing in life ... the simplest among them prefer fox hunting, the wisest, religion." With an almost Maoist fervour, however, Mrs. Thatcher has taken her party on a long march of reform through institutions of British society: the union, the civil service, education, the health service and the law.
    Warrior rather than healer, she has set in train what she sees as a libertarian movement to extend personal choice and create an enterprise society in which the state leaves people free to spend more of their own money and managers are free to manage without being prey to the constant demand of trade union leaders. Thatcherism has been based on simple slogans such as "sound money". As Nigel Lawson, the former Chancellor of the Exchequer, said, the inflation rate is judge and jury for her government. Thatcherism has looked to the creation of strong defences and a strong economy, not just for their intrinstic merits, but to restore national self-confidence and Britain's reputation in the world. The simple slogans have lived through it all: The Enterprise Economy, Stand On Your Own Two Feet, Making Britain Great Again and, of course, those famous Victorian Values.
    Thatcherism has been about free markets and a belief in individual responsibility. Mrs. Thatcher and her ministers have sought to educate Britain out of what they see as the dependency culture, to end the common belief that the solving of problems was always up to "them" —— the council, the government, the authorities. Mrs. Thatcher has encouraged the belief that there is a limit to government responsibilities. Her ability to win elections against a background of high unemployment argues that she succeeded to some extent in that.
    She and her ministers have proclaimed the values of popular capitaslism, which, for a Conservative administration, has the welcome advantage that it increases the number of people with something to conserve. The 2.5 million extra home-owners, many former council house tenants, and the 6 million additional shareholders who have appeared with the
 
Unit 6
 
Passage 1
 
    There was no Churchillism, no Heathism, no Callaghanism, Margaret Thatcher is the only prime minister to have had her own "ism". But what really is Thatcherism? Has it been a consistent ideology or merely household budgeting on a national scale? Does it amount to a philosophy or is it just one woman's political style?
    Certainly, she has made her party more ideological. Lord Hailsham of St Margaret once said: "Conservatives do not believe that political struggle is the most important thing in life… the simplest among them prefer fox hunting, the wisest, religion." With an almost Maoist fervour, however, Mrs. Thatcher has taken her party on a long march of reform through institutions of British society: the unions, the civil service, education, the health service and the law.
    Warrior rather than healer, she has set in train what she sees as a libertarian movement to extend personal choice and create an enterprise society in which the state leaves people free to spend more of their own money and managers are free to manage without being prey to the constant demand of trade union leaders. Thatcherism has been based on simple slogans such as "sound money:. As Nigel Lawson, the former Chancellor of the Exchequer, said, the inflation rate is judge and jury for her government. Thatcherism has looked to the creation of strong defences and a strong economy, not just for their intrinstic merits, but to restore national self-confidence and Britain's reputation in the world The simple slogans have lived through it all: The Enterprise Economy, Sound On Your Own Two Feet, Making Britain Great Again and, of course, those famous Victorian Values.
    Thatcherism has been about free markets and a belief in individual responsibility. Mrs. Thatcher and her ministers have sought to educate Britain out of what they see as the dependency culture, to end the common belief that the solving of problems was always up to "them" - the council the government, the authorities. Mrs. Thatcher has encouraged the belief that there is a limit to government responsibilities. Her ability to win elections against a background of high unemployment argues that she succeeded to some extent in that.
    She and her ministers have proclaimed the values of popular capitaslism, which, for a Conservative administration, has the welcome advantage that it increases the number of people with something to conserve. The 2.5 million extra home-owners, many former council house tenants, and the 6 million additional shareholders who have appeared with the privatisation of state industries bear witness to that.
    It has not all been consistent, though. She promised "less government", but the Thatcher governments have legislated copiously. There was to be less centralisation, but the role of local authorities has been steadily more circumscribed. A truly consistent believer in market forces and "level playing fields" for the economy would have wiped out the mortgage tax relief. Mrs. Thatcher has instead tried to encourage her chancellors to raise it. Her ideology, although some would argue that it was taken too far for her own followers on such issues as the privatisation of public utilities, was not allowed to interfer with Tory instincts as strong as that.
    Will Thatcherism last? New Prime ministers will have new styles. Thatcherism will leave a lasting legacy in British politics in that Mrs. Thatcher's reign has forced the Labour party to change direction and swing back to the center. The social market, the fostering of enterprise and the creation of wealth, as well as the allocation of spending priorities have now become a part of the language of every party.
 
 
1. Through this article, the writer intends to _________.
  A) demonstrate that Thatcherism is a style rather than a philosophy
  B) stress that Thatcherism has amounted to a philosophy
  C) comment on Thatcherism both philosophically and stylistically
  D) attach Thatcherism either as a philosophy or as a style
2. Which of the following is not encouraged by Thatcherism?
  A) All the social problems should wait for the government to deal with.
  B) The houses built by the city council should be sold to their tenants.
  C) Let local authorities , be more responsible for the affairs of their own zones.
  D) People should pay if they hope to enjoy any community services.
3. What does Mrs. Thatcher dislike to do in order to carry forward her libertarian movement?
  A) To create more chances for people to make money.
  B) To prevent trade unions from troubling the boss.
  C) To increase the number of people with something to conserve.
  D) To regulate the economy through government legislation.
4. What has Mrs. Thatcher contributed to the post-Thatcher politics ideologically?
  A) A guiding philosophy for her party and its supporters.
  B) The addition of some important ideas to British political thinking.
  C) An attractive style for her successor to follow.
  D) Some slogans which she has never realized.
 
Passage 2
 
    I believe that we all accept the principle that an affluent society must do what it can to prevent hunger and misery, and also to provide equality of opportunity to those who have been denied it. But how far can a society go in the redistribution of wealth without changing the very nature of society? I think this is a problem that we've got to face. I do not think that a majority in Congress are trying to face it, or realise that it is a problem, because so many of them are still hard at this business of redistributing income.
    All that reminds me of what happened in the universities during the 1960s and 1970s - events that I witnessed from a ringside seat. During this period we had a fashion of giving A's to every student - there were no failures. The effect on academic life was devastating. When illiterate or lazy students could get an A average, good students stopped studying. The result was a profound change in academic life: for merly dropouts were those who failed in their studies; in the 1960's and 1970's most of the dropouts were the most gifted and brilliant students, who found that college had become meaningless.
    What happens in the schools is not unlike what happens in society at large when the penalties of improvidence, laziness, or ignorance are not just softened, but removed. When there is no such thing as failure, there is no such thing as success either. Motivation, the desire to excel, the urge to accomplishment - all these disappear. The dynamism of society is lost.
    This, I'm afraid, is the direction in which our society has been going steadily for many years. The biggest losers are the brightest and most capable men and women. But the average person is a loser too. Faced with no challenge, assured of a comfortable living whether they work or not, such persons become willing dependents, content with a parasitical relationship to the rest of society.
    What is significant in our time is that there is a whole class of people interested in encouraging this parasitism. Many welfare officials and social workers are threatened with a loss of their power if there is a marked reduction in the number of their clients, so they are motivated to increase rather that decrease welfare dependency.
    Politicians, too, have flourished by getting increased federal grants for this or that disadvantaged group. They go back to their constituents and say. "Look what I've done for you," and get reelected. These are the office-holders who are far more interested in being reelected that in doing what is good for people, good for the economy, good for the nation.
    If everybody is rewarded just for being alive, you get the same sort of effect as you do when you reward evey student just for being enrolled. You destroy not only education, you destroy society by giving A's to everyone. This is a philosophical consideration that bothers me very much as I sit in the United States Senate and see is great budget allocations going through.
 
5. What is the main idea of this passage?
  A) You destroy society by giving "A" to everybody.
  B) You can't provide equality of opportunity to everybody.
  C) You can't prevent hunger and misery in a rich society.
  D) Only those who work hard can be rewarded.
6. Why did the author mention 1960's and 1970's?
  A) Because he wanted to show every student can get "A" then.
  B) To cite an example to support his points.
  C) To show most of the dropout were gifted.
  D) To show the opinions of students about universities.
7. Why were many welfare officials motivated to increase their clients?
  A) They were concerned with the dependants.
  B) They were afraid of a loss of their power.
  C) They encouraged the parasiticism.
  D) They gained a lot from their clients.
8. Why did the politicians support dependency?
  A) They wanted to show their sympathy.
  B) They wanted to be re-elected.
  C) They were not interested in doing good things for the nation.
  D) They paid great attention to dependency.
 
Passage 3
 
    Culture shock might be called an occupational disease of people who have been suddenly transplanted abroad. Like most ailments, it has its own symptoms and cure.
    Culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Those signs or cues include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situation of daily life: when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tip, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. These cues, which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms, are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues, most of which we do not carry on the level of conscious awareness.
    Now when an individual enters a strange culture, all or most of these familiar cues are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter how broad-minded or full of goodwill you may be, a series of props have been knocked from under you, followed by a feeling of frustration and anxiety. People react to the frustration in much the same way. First they reject the environment which causes the discomfort. "The ways of the host country are bad because they make us feel bad." When foreigners in a strange land get together to grouse about the host country and its people, you can be sure they are suffering from culture shock. Another phase of culture shock is regression. The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance. To the foreigner everything becomes irrationally glorified. All the difficulties and problems are forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered. It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality.
    Some of the symptoms of culture shock re excessive washing of the hands, excessive concern over drinking water, food dishes, and bedding; fear of physical contact with attendants, the absent-minded stare; a feeling of helplessness and a desire for dependence on longterm residents of one's own nationality, fist of anger over minor frustrations; great concern over minor pains and eruptions of the skin; and finally, that terrible longing to be back home.
    Individuals differ greatly in the degree in which culture shock affects them. Although not common, there are individuals who can not lie in foreign countries. However, those who have seen people go through culture shock and on to a satisfactory adjustment can discern steps in the process.
 
9. According to the passage, an occupational disease might be _________ .
  A) seldom caused by psychological stress
  B) in the same category of biological diseases
  C) an illness specific to people in a particular job
  D) very different from most ailments in that it has symptoms of its own.
10. In line 2-3, paragraph 3, "a series of props have been knocked from under you"
   A) things on which people depend for strength, supports or courage have been challenged or taken away.
   B) people are being seized by misfortunes one by one.
   C) people's pleasant character have been changed completely
   D) people are like the fish deprived of water.
11. From the author's point of view, which of the following is not the symptoms for people suffering from culture shock?
   A) To feel homesick.
   B) To feel at ease when in physical contact with local residents.
   C) To feel frustrated easily.
   D) To feel dependent on the company of his own nationality.
12. What does the author intend to conclude in the last paragraph?
   A) Everyone will probably suffer from the culture shock in the same way.
   B) Despite the culture shock, all people have the potential to stand to live in a different culture.
   C) Culture shock can only be suffered rather than cured.
   D) People can finally adapt themselves to a strange culture step by step.
 
Passage 4
 
    It is a general law in politics, that the power most to be distrusted, is that which, possessing the greatest force, is the least responsible. Under the constitutional monarchies of Europe, (as they exist in theory at least,) the king, besides uniting in his single person all the authority o the executive, which includes a power to make war, create peers, and unconditionally to name all employments, has an equal influence in enacting laws, his veto being absolute; but in America, the executive, besides being elective, is stripped of most of these high sources of influence, and is obliged to keep constantly in view the justice and legality of his acts, both on account of his direct responsibilities, and on account of the force of public opinion.
    In this country, there is far more to apprehend from Congress, that from the executive, as is seen in the following reasons: - Congress is composed of many, while the executive is one, bodies of men notoriously acting with less personal responsibilities that individuals; congress has power to enact laws, which it becomes the duty of the executive to see enforced, and the really legislative authority of a country is always its greatest authority; from the decisions and constructions o the executive, the citizen can always appeal to the courts for protection, but no appeal can lie from the acts of congress, except on the grounds of unconstitutionality, the executive has direct personal responsibilities under the laws of the land, for any abuses of his authority, but the member of congress unless guilty of open corruption, is almost beyond personal liabilities.
    It follows that the legislature of this country, by the intention of the constitution, wields the highest authority under the least responsibility, and that it is the power most to be distrusted. Still, all who possess trusts, are to be diligently watched, for there is no protection against abuses without responsibility, nor any real responsibility, without vigilance.
    Political partisans, who are too apt to mistake the impulses of their own hostilities and friendships for truths, have laid down many false principles on the subject of the duties of the executive. When a law is passed, it goes to the executive for execution, through the executive agents, and, at need to the courts for interpretation. It would seem that there is no discretion vested in the executive concerning the constitutionality of a law. If he distrusts the constitutionality of any law, he can set forth his objections by resorting to the veto; but it is clearly the intention of the system that the whole legislative power, in the last resort, shall abide in congress, while it is necessary to the regular action of the government, that none of its agents, but those who are specially appointed for that purpose, shall pretend to interpret the constitution, in practice. The citizen is differently situated. If he conceives himself oppressed by an unconstitutional law, it is his inalienable privilege to raise the question before the courts, where a final interpretation can be had. By this interpretation the executive and all his agents are equally bound to abide. This obligation arises from the necessity of things, as well as from the nature of the institutions. There must be somewhere a power to decide on the constitutionality of laws, and this power is in the supreme court of the United States, on final appeal.
 
13. The author's purpose in writing this passage is to indicate _________ .
   A) the difference between kings and presidents
   B) the power of the Supreme Court
   C) the limitations of the presidency
   D) the irresponsibility of Congress
14. According to the author, it is not the president's reponsibility to _________ .
   A) name his assistants
   B) question the constitutionality of a law
   C) have an equal status with Congress
   D) Enforce the laws passed by Congress
15. The strength of Congress lies in its numbers because _________ .
   A) in numbers, there is strength
   B) it controls the budget
   C) it does not have to concern itself with the constitutionality of the law it enacts
   D) no member can be held individually accountable for its actions
16. One idfference between a constitutional monarch and the president not mentioned by the author is that the _________ .
   A) monarch is non-clective
   B) monarch has unlimited tenure
   C) president has a limited veto
   D) president is limited by the constitution.
 
Passage 5
 
    Whenever you see an old film, even one made as little as ten years ago, you cannot help being struck by the appearance of the women taking part. Their hair-styles and makeup look dated; their skirts look either too long or too short; their general appearance is, in fact, slightly ludicrous. The men taking part in the film, on the other hand, are clearly recognisable. There is nothing about their appearance to suggest that they belong to an entirely different age.
    This illusion is created by changing fashions. Over the years, the great majority of men have successfully resisted all attempts to make them change their style of dress. The same cannot be said for women. Each year a few so-called top designers in Paris or London lay down the law and women the whole world over rush to obey. The decrees of the designers are unpredictable and dictatorial. This year, they decide in their arbitrary fashion skirts will be short and waists will be high; zips are in and buttons are out. Next year the law is reversed and far from taking exception, no one is even mildly surprised.
    If women are mercilessly exploited year after year, they have only themselves to blame. Because they shudder at the thought of being seen n public in clothes that are out of fashion they are annually blackmailed by the designers and the big stores. Clothes which have been worn only a few times have to be discarded because of the dictates of fashion. When you come to think of it, only a woman is capable of standing in front of a wardrobe packed full of clothes and announcing sadly that she has nothing to wear.
    Changing fashions are nothing more than the deliberate creation of waste. Many women squander vast sums of money each year to replace clothes that have hardly been worn. Women who cannot afford to discard clothing in this way, waste hours of their time altering the dresses they have. Hem-limes are taken up or let down; waist-lines are taken in or let out; neck-lines are lowered or raised, and so on.
    No one can claim that the fashion industry contributes anything really important to society. Fashion designers are rarely concerned with vital things like warmth, comfort and durability. They are only interested in outward appearance and they take advantage of the fact that women will put up with any amount of discomfort, providing they look right. There can hardly be a man who hasn't at some time in his life smiled at the sight of a woman shivering in a flimsy dress on a wintry day, or delicately picking her way through deep snow in dainty shoes.
    When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion, the conclusions to be drawn are obvious. Do the constantly changing fashions of women's clothes, one wonders, reflect basic qualities of fickleness and instability? Men are too sensible to let themselves be bullied by fashion designers,. Do their unchanging styles of dress reflect basic qualities of stability and reliability? That is for you to decide.
 
17. The main idea of this passage is _________ .
   A) New fashions in clothes reflect the qualities of women
   B) New fashions in clothing are created solely for commercial explotitation of women
   C) The top designers seem to have the right to creating new fashion
   D) Men have the basic quality of reliability
18. Why do the general appearance of actresses look ludicrous?
   A) Because they want their appearance in the fashion
   B) Because the top designers want them to follow the fashion.
  , C) Because the top designers want them to make fashion.
   D) Because the top designers want them to lead the fashion.
19. Why are women mercilessly exploited by the fashion designers?
   A) They love new fashion        B) They love new clothes.
   C) They want to look beautiful.    D) They are too vain.
20. What are fashion designers interested in?
   A) Outward appearance.          B) comfort
   C) Beauty.                        D) Durability.
 
 

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